Form v ~ biology ~ scheme of work (2008 – 2009)

Textbooks: Biology for IGCSE by Gareth Williams and GCSE Biology by D G Mackean.
Differences between sexual and asexual reproduction, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Main methods of asexual reproduction: binary fission, budding, spore formation and vegetative reproduction (including specific examples). Cloning and tissue culturing. Sexual rep in humans: structure and function of the male and female reproductive organs. Menstrual cycle, copulation, fertilisation, nutrition and protection of the embryo, birth and parental care. Menstrual cycle, gametogenesis and 2o sexual characteristics. FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Methods of birth control. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Structure of an insect-pollinated flower. Differences between insect- and wind-pollinated flowers. Pollination, fertilization, seed and fruit formation and dispersal, seed structure. Conditions necessary for germination; chemical and physical changes during germination. Soil: components. Different types of soil: sandy, clay and loam soils. Reducing soil erosion: contour ploughing, strip cropping, terracing of fields. a) the components of fertile soil b) water, humus and air content c) drainage of various soil types. Response to stimuli in plants; positive phototropism of stems, geotropism of roots and stems. Experiments and controls to demonstrate these tropisms. The spinal cord and associated spinal nerves. The reflex arc including the types of neurones involved. The central nervous system. Structure and function of the cerebral hemispheres (incl position of the sight centres), the cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Functioning of the motor, sensory and association areas in the brain. Positions of the main endocrine glands: pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, ovaries and testes. Feedback control in relation to blood-glucose level or female reproductive hormones. “Insulin, glucagon, adrenaline”. The DNA molecule. Chromosomes, genes, alleles. The role of DNA in protein synthesis: the sequence of bases on the DNA strand determine the type of protein produced. Only a basic knowledge of nucleic acids and the structure of DNA is required. Mitosis (exact duplication of genetic material) and meiosis (halving of chromosome number by separation and independent assortment of chromosomes of each pair). The sites where each occur in flowering plants and humans. Diploid and haploid nuclei. Fusion of gametes. Monohybrid cross, dominant and recessive alleles. Codominance. Phenotypes and genotypes, homozygous and heterozygous genotypes. The recessive back cross. Sex determination in humans and sex-linked characteristics. Variation: inherited and non-inherited; continuous and discontinuous. Mutations and mutagens. Principles and uses of genetic engineering. The use of enzymes to cut and join gene DNA and vector DNA to form recombinant DNA; the use of plasmids and viruses as vectors to insert recombinant DNA into cells. Production of human insulin by genetically engineered bacteria. Fish farming and animal husbandry.



Revisiones J. García Campayo2 M. Tomás Flórez3J. M. Gómez Arguelles4Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet y Centro de Salud María Auxiliadora Antecedentes. La elevada prevalencia y enorme impacto fi bromialgia. Pero, además, para cada subgrupo existen una clínico y social de la fi bromialgia, junto a la complejidad de serie de recomendaciones específi cas de tipo farmacológico,

ANTRAG Zusammenfassung und HTA-Literatur ASA Assoziation Schweizerischer Ärztegesellschaften für Akupunktur und Chinesische Medizin Sekretariat: Postfach, CH-8575 Bürglen Telefon 071 634 66 19, Telefax 071 634 66 18 E-MaiInterne Zusatzinformationen im Schlussbericht Programm Evaluation Komplementärmedizin PEK: Summary Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was reimbursed by th

Copyright © 2010-2014 Drug Shortages pdf