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Lithuanian university of agriculture
LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry
: lectures, supported by PowerPoint presentation and slides
: basic knowledge of plant biology and physiology.
: scripts referring to the actual topics are distributed during lectures.
: oral examination, upon appointment.
Registration for course
: two weeks before the beginning of the course.
Registration for examination
: with lecturer, personally or by phone.
The invention of agriculture, 10 000 years ago, heralded the dawn of civilization. The constant improvements in technology and crop productivity through selection and breeding of plants have contributed to the growth of human civilization. Bearing in mind that there are natural limits to increased productivity by environmental manipulations, one way to improve and maintain a sustainable level of crop productivity is through the exploitation of biotechnology. Indeed, one major aim of biotechnology is to increase yield, while maintaining stable human ecosystem. Plant biotechnology and molecular breeding have already proved their impact in enhancing the productivity of some of the major agricultural crops. They will continue to contribute to the production of plants with novel traits that are otherwise difficult or impossible to develop by conventional breeding.
In an age in which the dynamic field of plant biotechnology advances at an
accelerating rate, there is a growing need to explain how that science is applied. After completion of the course the students will:
• have a basic knowledge of biotechnology; • be able to perform biotechnological experiments on plants and evaluate the
• have good knowledge about application of plant tissue culture techniques in
• obtain certain practical training in methods used in plant biotechnology.
Introduction. Basics medium. Micropropagation. Applications of micropropagation.
Haploid plant production in vitro
. Cell culture and selection of desirable traits. In vitro
mutagenesis. The origin, nature, and significance of variation in tissue culture. Laboratory practices
Laboratory equipment and material (10%)
Micropropagation technology (40%)
Double haploid technology (50%) Independent work
Individual home work 15 hours
Test 15 hours
Examination 30 hours
1. Plants, genes, and crop biotechnology (2nd edition). Marten J. Chrispeels,
David E. Sadava, Martin J. Chrispeels. Jones & Bartlett Pub., 2002, p.562.
2. In vitro plant breeding. Acram Taji, Prakash P. Kumar, Prakash Lakshmanan.
3. In vitro embryogenesis in plants. Edited by Trevor A. Thorpe. Kluwer Academic
4. Morphogenesis in plant tissue cultures. Edited by Woong – Young Soh and
Sant S. Bhojwani. Kluwer academic publishers, 1999, p. 520.
5. Cloning Agricultural Plants via in vitro techniques. Edited by B. V. Conger.CRC
Study programme prepared by Acting assoc.prof. dr. Natalija Burbulis
Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agronomy, Lithuanian University of Agriculture Studentu 11, Akademija, Kaunas distr., LT-53361 Lithuania Phone: +370 37 752314 Fax: +370 37 752271 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
CONTENT OF STUDY PROGRAMME
1. Introduction (5%)
• Applications of plant tissue culture.
2. Basics medium (10%)
• Macro-, micro nutrient, source of carbohydrate, vitamins. • Growth
• Auxin and auxin-like compounds. • Cytokinins and cytokinin-like compounds. • Gibberellins and gibberellin-like compounds.
• Hormonal regulation of morphogenesis in tissue culture.
3. Micropropagation (20%)
• Stage 0
: the preparative stage.
• Growing stock plants. • Changing the physiological status of the stock plant, the source of
• Stage 1
: initiation stage.
• Factors determine the success rate in stage one. • Hypersensitivity reaction.
• Stage 2
• Callus-forming cultures. • Physiological and morphological aspects of somatic embryogenesis. • Factors affecting direct organogenesis.
• Stage 3
: rooting stage.
• Stage 4
4. Applications of micropropagation (10%)
• Methods of virus elimination. • Virus indexing.
• Tissue culture for maintenance of plant genetic resources (germplasm
storage). • Storage using slow growth techniques. • Storage using cryopreservation.
5. Haploid plant production in vitro (15%)
• Origin of androgenic haploids. • Molecular and cytological aspects of androgenesis induction.
• Factors affecting androgenesis: genetic potential, physiological status of the
donor plant, stage of pollen development.
• External factors; culture medium, culture density, colchicines treatment,
6. Cell culture and selection of desirable traits (20%)
• Positive selection. • Negative selection. • Other selection strategies.
• Selection for herbicide tolerance. • Selection for disease resistant lines. • Selection for amino acids accumulators. • Selection for variants for resistance to abiotic stresses.
7. In vitro mutagenesis (10%)
• Precautions for handling the chemical mutagens.
• Determining the type and suitable concentration of mutagens. • The choice of plant tissues for in vitro
8. The origin, nature, and significance of variation in tissue culture (10%)
• The basis of somaclonal variation. • Genetic variation arising from source plant. • Genetic variation arising during culture. • Causes of somaclonal variations. • Use of somaclonal variation in breeding.
Laboratory equipment and material (10%)
Work safety in growth room and sterile laminar flow hood. Care of donor plants and
regenerants. Basic medium preparation. Micropropagation technology (40%)
Induction, regeneration and rooting medium. Explant selection, sterilization and
isolation. Direct and indirect organogenesis in vitro
. Regenerants subcultivation and
their transplanting. Results evaluation and interpretation. Double haploid technology (50%)
Cytology of microspores: pre-culture events, post-culture events. Medium for embryo
induction and plant regeneration. Bud selection and sterilization, extraction of
microspores. Regeneration of haploid plants and their transplanting. Evaluation of ploidy level. Colchicine treatment. Results evaluation and interpretation.
2008 Senior Questions Round 1 One-on-One Questions 1. (Chair 1): What were horses of the quarter type called before 1938? Ans. “steeldust” Evans, 26 2. (Chair 2): The domestic horse belongs to what species? Ans. Equus Caballus 3. (Chair 3): Considered by many to be the greatest harness horse of all time this Standardbred held the pacing record for 35 years. Name him.
God and Evolution Murtada Mutahhari's The Causes Responsible for Materialist tendencies in the West Translated from the Persian by Mujahid Husayn Among the various issues which in my opinion have had a great impact on materialistic tendencies is the false notion that there is a contradiction between the principle of creation on the one hand and the theory of evolution, especially the