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Microsoft word - a&pi final exam review f2009.doc

Be sure to pay attention to any prefix, suffix, or root word that I mentioned. Be sure you know any question that
we discussed in class after the exams were returned.
Chapter 1

Be able to define homeostasis and understand how it works. Be able to explain and give examples of positive
and negative feedback systems
, name the two body systems that help to maintain homeostasis and the
advantage of each
, and be able to explain control of body temperature (location of the thermostat and how the
body is cooled or warmed) and blood sugar levels (know about glucagon (not glycogen) and insulin, what they
do, and where and why they are produced). What is a homeostatic imbalance?

List and define the levels of organization of life. Know the definition of each (cell, molecule, organelle, tissue, organ, etc.) Be sure you know where organelle would fit in the list. importance of ATP in living organisms and how it works.
Chapter 2
Understand the structure of an atom and know the location and function of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Which of the above determine the chemical properties of an atom and are directly involved in chemical bonding?
Understand the difference between covalent (polar and nonpolar), ionic, and hydrogen bonds. What type of
bond results from electron sharing? from giving up or accepting electrons? is demonstrated by the attraction
between water molecules? is important in the structure of proteins and DNA molecules? is strongest? is weakest?
forms ions?
Understand the symbols used in designating an ion (+ or - ). Define cation and anion and give examples.
Be able to distinguish between organic (always contain C with H attached) and inorganic compounds.
*Define and explain dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis and recognize examples.
What are the most common elements found in living organisms? Be sure you understand pH: the pH scale, what makes something acid, base, or salt, and how to use the pH
scale. What is a buffer?
Understand the structure, characteristics, and importance of water. Is it organic or inorganic? Is it polar
covalent, nonpolar covalent, or ionic?
Be sure you understand Hydrogen bonds and their importance in determining the properties of water and in
the structure of DNA and protein structure.
Carbon can form ___ bonds by (sharing? giving up?) electrons.
Define: isotope, molecule, atom, element, ion, valence electrons, atomic number vs atomic weight. Know the 4 classes of organic molecules, their building blocks, and how the body uses them:
Know about proteins and enzymes: what "ase" means, what a catalyst is, how they work, their structure
(linear, secondary, tertiary and quartenary), "lock-and -key" hypothesis, specificity of enzymes, made of ___

Know about carbohydrates: examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides and their functions.
Know about lipids: characteristics, uses in the body, examples.
Know about nucleic acids: building blocks (nucleotides) and their structure. Explain the role of electrons in chemical bonding and in relation to the rule of “8’s”. Know the symbols of any ion we have discussed. Chapter 3
19. Define:
cytoplasm, interstitial fluid, extracellular fluid, the terms intra- inter- and extra-cellular.
structure of the cell (plasma) membrane and explain why it is easy for lipid-soluble molecules to
Describe the cellular organelles and know the function of each. (A good table for review is on pg. 69.)
Understand how material can pass from one side of the cell membrane to the other. Be able to explain: diffusion,
facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, hypertonic,
isotonic, hypotonic, filtration. Know what would happen if a cell were placed in a hypotonic, hypertonic, or
isotonic solution.

List and know the events that occur in each stage of mitosis. A good review is pg. 102-103. Define chromosome,
chromatin, chromatids, centromere, centriole, spindle fiber, cleavage furrow, haploid vs diploid, gamete vs somatic
cell, zygote, mitosis vs meiosis. Be sure to know when the chromosomes are replicated.
24. Describe
the resting membrane potential.
Be able to list the steps in the process of secretion by the Golgi apparatus. Know that proteins in the Golgi were Chapter 4 Be sure to review material on the tissue worksheet we used in class.
Describe the structural characteristics of epithelial tissue (KNOW them).
mesothelium, endothelium, cutaneous membrane, mucous membrane, and serous membrane; basement
membrane; simple, stratified, and pseudostratified; squamous, cuboidal, and columnar; microvilli vs cilia;
Be able to classify and describe the distinguishing features of the different types of epithelial tissue know where they are found. (You need to know any examples given in lecture.) See charts on pages 117-121.
a. What 2 tissues have goblet cells? What is a goblet cell and where would each type of tissue be found?
b. What is transitional epithelium and where would you find it?
c. What type of epithelium would you expect to find where absorption is the main function? protection?
All glands come from ____ tissue. Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine; unicellular and multicellular;
Know these proteins, their importance, and where they are found: collagen, keratin, melanin, elastin, and
reticular fibers.
Describe the structural characteristics of connective tissue. Know the types of connective tissue proper and
cartilage and know the examples that we discussed in class. See the charts on 128-132.
the characteristics of inflammation, name the cell that is responsible and the chemicals involved
(histamine, heparin, etc): which causes vasodilation and which is an anticoagulant? Know the difference
between fibrosis and regeneration.
Know the cells found in connective tissue and their functions: mesenchyme, fibroblast, mast cell, macrophage,
neutrophils, plasma cells, the meaning of the prefixes "blast, clast, cyte".
Chapter 5
the tissue types making up the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) of the skin.
Which one makes up the major part of the skin? List and describe the major layers of each (5 in epidermis and
2 in dermis) and describe the functions of each layer. How does the epidermis get its nourishment?

Describe the following cells in the epidermis: melanocytes, Langerhans' cells, keratinocytes, Merkel cell.
Know about burns: classification of (1st, 2nd, 3rd degree burns), Rule of nines.
Chapter 6
37. Describe
structure of compact bone: osteon, lamella, canaliculi, osteocyte, lacunae, central (Haversian)
canal, transverse (perforating) canal, periosteum, osteoblast, Sharpy's fibers.
3 types of cartilage and give the location of each in the skeleton. Which is the forerunner of long bone?
articular cartilage? found in the intervertebral disks and symphysis pubis? nose? pinna of ear? Define these terms: appositional vs interstitial growth, extracellular matrix (organic components and
inorganic components), compact vs cancellous (spongy) bone, osteoblast, osteocyte, and osteoclast,
periosteum vs endosteum, diaphysis vs epiphysis, epiphyseal line, red vs yellow marrow, trabeculae,
membranous bone vs endochondral bone.

What is the last part of a long bone to ossify? How does a long bone grow in length? The epiphyseal plate is
Based on their embryonid development, flat bones of the skull are ____ bones and long bones are ___ bones.
endochondrial ossification and intramembranous ossification
hormones involved in bone growth and development and where they are produced: Human growth
hormone, thyroid hormone, estrogen and testosterone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, calcitriol. Describe
homeostasis of blood calcium levels. Which hormone is responsible for the growth spurt of adolesence?
increasing calcium levels of the blood? important in depositing calcium in bone during childhood?

What is found in the matrix of bone but not in cartilage?
Chapter 7/8
Describe the homeostatic imbalances of the vertebral column: scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis. Also describe the
intervetebral disc and explain what a herniated disc is.
Chapter 9
Know the types of joints based on structure and function.(pg. 268-9) Describe the structure of a synovial joint. It is also a ___ joint based on movement.
Chapter 10/11

How does a muscle fiber differ from a typical cell?
52. Explain
how calcium is the trigger for a muscle contraction. What is the role of ATP?
53. Compare
structure and characteristics of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.
54. Describe
connective tissue wrappings of skeletal muscle. Define: origin, insertion, action, tendon,
55. Describe
the structure of a skeletal muscle fiber: sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, myoglobin, myofibrils, striations,
parts of a sarcomere, thick and thin myofilaments and what proteins they are made of .
Describe the structure of the contractile proteins: actin, tropomyosin, troponin, myosin, myosin heads and cross
List the steps in muscle contraction beginning with the arrival of an action potential at the neuromuscular junction and ending with the release of the cross-bridges and the return to the resting sarcomere length. What is the contractile unit of a skeletal muscle? Describe the changes (if any) in the I band, A band and H
zone. Know the myofilaments present in each band in a resting muscle.
the resting cell membrane. Describe the action potential.
Be sure you understand the contraction of a whole muscle. The all-or-none principle applies to a _____ _____. Whole muscles can produce variations in muscle tension (graded responses) by recruiting additional _____
_____ and by increasing the ______ of stimulation

Chapters 12, 13, 14, 16 and 18
Know the information on the Study Sheets for the nervous system, endocrine system and Autonomic NS/senses
review sheet.


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