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Microsoft powerpoint - dotshipping.ppt

Understanding Lithium Shipping
Shipping Lithium & Li-Ion batteries
ƒ Two regulating authorities: U.S. Hazardous Materials
Regulations (HMR) and its associated Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR), and International Air Transport Association

ƒ All lithium/lithium ion cells and batteries are regulated as
Class 9 “hazardous materials” or “dangerous goods” for
shipping domestically & internationally

ƒ There are exceptions to the HMR & IATA regulations for
“small” lithium/li-ion batteries based on amount of lithium in
these batteries

ƒ Amount of lithium in li-ion batteries is determined by
“equivalent lithium content”
ƒ Equivalent lithium content: Calculated in grams on per-cell
basis as 0.3 times the rated capacity of the cell in Ampere-
hours times the number of cells per pack

Calculating Equivalent Lithium Content
(for Li-Ion)
• A lithium ion cell with rated capacity of
2.2Ah cell
• Applying conversion factor of 0.3, the cell has 0.66 grams (2.2 x 0.3 = .66) of equivalent lithium content • A battery pack containing 9 of these
9 cell pack of
2.2Ah cells =
5.94g ELC
2.2 x 0.3 x 9 = 5.94 grams
of equivalent lithium content in 9-cell 2.2Ah pack
Lithium/Li-Ion Battery Transportation Regulations Currently in Effect for DomesticShipping (max = 12 cell 2.2Ah pack or 9 cell 2.4Ah pack) Lithium/Li-Ion Battery Transportation Regulations Currently in Effect for InternationalShipping IATA DGR: A45/PI 903 (2004) (max = 12 cell 2.2Ah or 9 cell 2.4Ah pack) Grandfather Clause in IATA: Lithium / Lithium ion cell and battery designs
previously exempted from testing & manufactured before January 1, 2003 do
not require testing until January 1, 2005
Proposed DOT change for Domestic Shipping
of New* Products: Adoption of IATA (SP A45)
regulations, estimated by Summer 2005
Still under negotiation:
• Economic impact on small business with regard to testing
• May be able to piggy back testing of similar designs and/or Either way: International regulations are in
effect; more stringent testing will be necessary!
*Proposal says designs previously excepted & mfg’d
prior to 1/1/03 have until 1/1/05

UN Manual of Tests & Criteria “T” Tests

T1 Altitude Simulation
T2 Thermal Test
T3 Vibration
T4 Shock
T5 External Short Circuit
T6 Impact
T7 Overcharge
Currently IATA only, but
T8 Forced Discharge
part of proposed rule
In addition to the testing cost ($4k-$5k), each test requires several
cells/packs to produce the test
Cells and Batteries Required for UN “T” Tests T1 – T5
• 20 primary cells and 8 primary batteries
• 20 rechargeable cells and 16 rechargeable batteries
• 10 or 20 (prismatic) primary cells and 10 or 20 (prismatic)
• 8 rechargeable batteries
• 10 primary cells and 20 rechargeable cells
Section 38.3.2 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria• Used to determine “new” type of cell or battery that • A change of more that 0.1 g or 20% by mass, whichever is greater, to the cathode, to the anode, or to the electrolyte; or • A change that would materially affect the test results Other Exceptions, Special Provisions, and Approvals For Prototypes Special Provision DOT, IATA, ICAO• Prototype lithium batteries and cells that are packed with not more than 24 cells or 12 batteries per packaging that have not been tested to the requirements may be transported if • Can be transported by ground or by cargo aircraft only (DOT)• Must be packaged to meet the requirements of Packaging • Each cell and battery must be individually packed in an inner packaging inside and outer packaging and surrounded be cushioning material that is non-combustible and non- conductive. Cells and batteries must be protected against Contact Rose for further information


Microsoft word - goebel

Microstructure Analysis in Materials Science, Freiberg, June 15 – 17, 2005 A new flat Goebel-mirror for the optimization of the primary beam in Bragg-Brentano diffraction geometry 1Retired from Siemens AG, Corp. Technology, Munich, Presently with the Lab. Cryst. Ana- Keywords : X-Ray Powder Diffraction, Planar Goebel-Mirror, Selective Wavelength, Bragg- Brentano Focussing, Linea

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