FEBRUARY 2000 CDC Update "HIV Transmission by Oral Sex" Washington Post (02/02/00) P. A9 A study conducted by researchers the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the University of California at San Francisco shows that oral sex is a frequent method of spreading HIV. Oral sex was the likely cause of 8 percent of recent HIV infections in a group of 102 gay and bisexual men in San Francisco. The only risk behavior found in eight of the men was oral sex, which they thought had little or no risk. The scientists concluded that the men must have contracted HIV through giving oral sex, not receiving it, without using a condom. "AIDS Virus Originated Around 1930, Study Says" New York Times (02/02/00) P. A15; Altman, Lawrence K. Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have used a new statistical method and a complicated computer to trace the origin of HIV to around 1930, over 20 years earlier than the first known human infection. The 1930 date does not exactly mean it is when a chimp first bit a human, according to Dr. Bette Korber, head of the research team. An earlier estimate was based on the first known case of the virus, found in a 1959 blood sample from the former Belgian Congo. The findings counter British journalist Edward Hooper's theory in his book "The River" that the experimental polio vaccine tested in the Belgian Congo in the late 1950s helped cause the AIDS epidemic after being tainted by a chimpanzee virus. At Los Alamos, the scientists used genetic mutations of HIV to form a family tree for the virus, with each branch showing a change in HIV. "Morning After Drugs May Save People From HIV" Reuters (02/02/00); Fox, Maggie California researchers studying 401 people who took "morning after" AIDS drugs following risky sexual encounters or drug use report that, thus far, none of the individuals have developed HIV infection. Approximately 94 percent of the volunteers were exposed to the virus sexually, largely through unprotected anal sex. The post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, included four weeks of Combivir, a combined pill of AZT and 3TC, or a stronger dose of drugs if the patient was exposed to someone with a resistant strain of HIV. The researchers note that there were few side effects reported; however, they add that it is not possible to know which person was saved from HIV infection, in part because the group was very small and because estimated rates for infection through unprotected anal sex range from one in 225 times to one in 25. "UTMB Study Explains Why Oral Sex Unsafe in Age of HIV" Houston Chronicle Online (02/03/00); Hopper, Leigh New research from the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston shows the reason why oral sex is unsafe as a way to avoid HIV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported this week that oral sex was likely the source of 6.6 percent of recent HIV infections among a group of homosexual men studied in San Francisco. Saliva has low enough saltiness to destroy infected blood cells, but semen and breast milk are seven times saltier than saliva, allowing infected blood cells to live, according to Dr. Samuel Baron, a professor at UTMB and the lead author of the new study. Baron explained that blood cells need asalty environment to live, so that saliva's benefits become reduced when semen is added in large enough amounts. Transmission of HIV can occur in the gums, tongue, esophagus, or tonsils, said the researchers, who now trying to develop a gel to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV by copying the protective nature of saliva.
"France Provides Morning-After Pill to Schoolgirls" New York Times (02/08/00) P. A1; Daley, Suzanne Last month, France became the first country to allow school nurses to dispense emergency contraception pills as part of an effort to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and lower the abortion rate. The policy has found support among women's groups and some parents groups who believe young people should have better access to contraceptives. However, opponents think the government has overstepped the boundary of casual sex promotion, ignoring the need for condoms to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Christian Ganet, president of the Parents of Public School Students, opposes the school program and suggests that more teens will rely on the pill and forego HIV protection. The emergency pill must be taken within 72 hours of having sex. Catholic groups believe the pill is a form of abortion, since it prevents a fertilized egg from implanting for up to 12 weeks after conception. Dr. Israel Nisand of Strasbourg University wrote a report that showed youngsters are misinformed regarding sex and conception, believing they cannot get pregnant the first few times and they do not use condoms correctly. Dr. Nisand discovered that French teens receive essentially no sex education and are at high risk for pregnancy. It is not yet known how much demand will arise for the pill, as many students are too embarrassed to visit the infirmary simply for condoms. "Magazine Survey Sheds Light on Teenagers' Attitudes to Sex" Atlanta Journal-Constitution (www.accessatlanta.com) (02/29/00) P. 5B; Wilson, Angel A survey conducted for Seventeen magazine shows that 55 percent of Americans ages 15 to 19 have participated in oral sex. The survey of 1,105 teens also showed that one-third believe they are not getting adequate information about birth control from their parents, and 75 percent believe sex education should be taught in schools by age 13. Nearly 20 percent of the boys surveyed said peer pressure was the primary influence in having sex, compared to 9 percent for girls. Seventeen is working with the Kaiser Family Foundation on a year-long campaign called SexSmarts, which will address such issues as sexually transmitted diseases and pressure to have sex.
The Charlotte County School Board shall provide programs to improve the education of limited English proficient children by assisting the children to learn English and meet Virginia’s challenging academic content and student academic achievement standards. Assessments The School Board will annually assess the English proficiency of all students with limited English proficiency
Lesen Sie den Text gründlich. Gehen Sie dann zu den Aufgaben und wählen Sie die richtige Variante – R – richtig oder F – falsch – aus. Bleiben Sie gesund! Doch manchmal erwischt es einen eben doch . Um fünf Uhr morgens wacht Manfred plötzlich auf. Er hat Fieber, sein Kopf tut weh, er hustet, die Nase läuft – er kann kaum atmen: Manfred hat eine Erkältung. Manfred steht