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Magnetoterapia multifrequenziale in chirurgia orale ed osteorigenerazione

Magnetoterapia multifrequenziale in chirurgia orale osteorigenerazione
e patologie dolorose
Database
McLeod KJ, Rubin CT (1992) The effect of low-frequency electrical fields on osteogenesis. J
Bone Joint Surg Am Jul;74(6):920-929. Dept of Orthopaedics, School of Med, State Univ of New
York, Stony Brook 11794-8181. An in vivo animal model of disuse osteopenia was used to
determine the osteogenic potential of specific components of electrical fields. The ability of a
complex pulsed electrical field to inhibit loss of bone was compared with the remodeling response
generated by extremely low-power, low-frequency (15, 75 and 150-Hz) sinusoidal electrical fields.
The left ulnae of 30 adult male turkeys were functionally isolated by creation of distal and proximal
epiphyseal osteotomies and then were exposed, for 1 h/d, to an electrical field that had been induced
exogenously by means of magnetic induction. After a 56-d protocol, the remodeling response was
quantified by a comparison of the cross-sectional area of the mid-part of the diaphysis of the
functionally isolated ulna with that of the intact contralateral ulna. Disuse resulted in a 13% mean
loss of osseous tissue, which was not significantly different than the 10% loss that was caused by
disuse treated with inactive coils. Exposure to the pulsed electrical fields prevented this osteopenia
and stimulated a 10% mean increase in the bone area. The osteogenic influence of the sinusoidal
electrical fields was strongly dependent on the frequency; the 150, 75, and 15-Hz sinusoidal fields,
respectively, generated a -3%, + 5%, and + 20% mean change in the bone area. These results
suggest a tissue sensitivity that is specific to very low-frequency sinusoidal electrical fields, and
they imply that the induced electrical fields need not have complex waveforms to be osteogenic.
Since the frequency and intensity range of the sinusoidal fields producing the greatest osteogenic
response are similar to the levels produced intrinsically by normal functional activity, these results
support the hypothesis that electricity plays a role in the retention of the normal remodeling balance
within mature bone. [Published erratum appears in J Bone Joint Surg Am 1992 Sep;74(8):1274].
PMID: 1634583, UI: 92340610
Miller GJ, Burchardt H, Enneking WF, Tylkowski CM (1984) Electromagnetic stimulation of
canine bone grafts
. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] Jun;66(5):693-698. We evaluated the effect of PEMF
stimulation on the rate of healing or incorporation of segmental autogenous cortical bone grafts in
the dog in vivo. This non-invasive method of electrical stimulation has been implicated in
increasing bone osteogenesis or augmentation of the repair process in the canine fibular osteotomy.
We used 2-mo and 6-mo stimulation protocols. At 6 mo, all of the animals were evaluated
biomechanically using rapid-loading torsional testing. Histological evaluation using tetracycline
labeling was used to evaluate cumulative new-bone formation and porosity, while graft-host time to
union was evaluated roentgenographically every 2 wk. Recent reports have implied that particular
pulse configurations might be effective in improving graft revascularization and incorporation.
Using the particular waveform described, PEMF stimulation had no significant effect on the
biomechanical strength, histological presentation, or time to union with either 2 or 6 mo
. PMID:
6373772, UI: 84212628
Ottani V, De Pasquale V, Govoni P, Castellani PP, Ripani M, Gaudio E, Morocutti M (1991)
Augmentation of bone repair by pulsed ELF magnetic fields in rats. Anat Anz 172(2):143-147.
Istituto di Anatomia Umana Normale, Bologna, Italy. Tibial osteotomies in rats were exposed for 2,
3, 5 and 8 wk to a pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field. The shape of the pulse was a double halfwave (50 Hz, 70 G). The rate of bone healing was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. An increase of bone healing was found in rats treated with magnetic fields persisting throughout the tested time. The accelerated healing process produced a sequence of morphological appearances identical to those of a normal fracture callus being the enhancement of osteogenesis produced by an acceleration of preliminary ossification. PMID: 2048744, UI: 91264243 Heermeier K, Spanner M, Trager J, Gradinger R, Strauss PG, Kraus W, Schmidt J (1998) Effects of
extremely low frequency EMF on collagen type I mRNA expression and extracellular matrix
synthesis of human osteoblastic cells
. Bioelectromagnetics 19(4):222-231. Institut fur Molekulare
Virologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fur Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany. Human
osteoblastic cells were grown in a 3-D cell culture model and used to test the effects of a 20 Hz
sinusoidal EMF (6 mT and 113 mV/cm max) on collagen type I mRNA expression and extracellular
matrix formation in comparison with the effects of growth factors. The cells were isolated from
trabecular bone of a healthy individual (HO-197) and from a patient presenting with myositis
ossificans (MO-192) and grown in a collagenous sponge-like substrate. Maximal enhancement of
collagen type I expression after EMF treatment was 3.7-fold in HO-197 cells and 5.4-fold in MO-
192 cells. Similar enhancement was found after transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and
insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) treatment. Combined treatment of the cells with EMF and the
two growth factors TGF-beta and IGF-I did not act synergistically. MO-192 cells produced an
osteoblast-characteristic extracellular matrix containing collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, and
osteocalcin, together with collagen type III, TP-1, and TP-3, two epitopes of an osteoblastic
differentiation marker. The effects of EMFs on osteoblastic differentiation were comparable to
those of TGF-beta and IGF-I. EMF effects in the treatment of skeletal disorders and in orthopedic
adjuvant therapy were mediated via enhancement of collagen type I mRNA expression, which may
lead to extensive extracellular matrix synthesis
. PMID: 9581965, UI: 98241121
HA (1984) Electrical stimulation of osteogenesis. South Med J Jan;77(1):56-64. The three
electrical stimulation systems available for treating non-union of long bones are successful in
approximately 85% of cases. The percutaneous direct current bone growth stimulator is partially
invasive, allows patient mobility, can be used with magnetic fixation devices, and can be monitored
for proper function, but it requires an operation, cannot be used where infection exists, and is
subject to breakage. The implantable direct current bone growth stimulator is similar, but is totally
invasive. The external PEMF bone growth stimulator is noninvasive and can be used where
infection exists, but it requires long, exact patient compliance and cannot be used with magnetic
fixation devices or at certain sites. None of the systems can be used where synovial pseudarthrosis
or a sizeable gap between bone ends exists, nor are they more effective than bone grafting. Whether
their use might evoke malignant transformation or might accelerate or retard epiphyseal growth
patterns is not known. Many controlled studies are needed before it is clear how commonly
electrical stimulation should be used to treat bony ununion. Publication Types: Review PMID:
6364371, UI: 84121514
Gupta TD, Jain VK, Tandon PN (1991) Comparative study of bone growth by pulsed EMFs.
Med Biol Eng Comput Mar;29(2):113-120. Dept of Electrical Engineering, Harcourt Butler
Technological Institute, Kanpur, India. PEMFs have been widely used for treatment of non-united
fractures and congenital pseudarthrosis. Several electrical stimulation systems such as air-cored and
iron-cored coils and solenoids have been used the world over and claimed to be effective. Electrical
parameters such as pulse shape, magnitude and frequency differ widely, and the exact bone-healing
mechanism is still not clearly understood. The study attempts to analyse the effectiveness of various
parameters and suggests an optimal stimulation waveform. Mathematical analysis of electric fields
inside the bone together with Fourier analysis of induced voltage waveforms produced by
commonly used electrical stimulation wave-forms has been performed. A hypothesis based on assigning different weightings to different frequencies for osteogenic response has been proposed. Using this hypothesis astonishingly similar effective values of electric fields have been found in different systems. Effective electric field rather than peak electric field was the main parameter responsible for osteogenesis. The results agree with experimental findings made on human beings by different investigators. PMID: 1857114, UI: 91311997 Deibert MC, Mcleod BR, Smith SD, Liboff AR (1994) Ion resonance EMF stimulation of
fracture healing in rabbits with a fibular ostectomy
. J Orthop Res Nov;12(6):878-885. Dept of
Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Univ of Vermont College of Med, Burlington 05405. Rabbits with
a fibular ostectomy were exposed for 28 d to magnetic fields that satisfied the ion resonance
conditions for calcium or magnesium. The rabbits were exposed to whole body treatment for 1/2 h,
3 h, or 24 h/d. The fibulae from the experimental and control animals were removed surgically and
were subjected to force-deflection testing to establish the stiffness of the healed fracture. The
fibulae from the rabbits exposed to the ion resonance magnetic fields were found to be 55-299%
(p<.01) more robust than the fibulae from the control animals. PMID: 7983563, UI: 95074712
de Barros Filho TE, Rossi JD, Lage L de A, Rodrigues CJ, de Oliveira AS, Pinto FC, dos Reis GM,
Rodrigues Junior AJ (1992) [Effect of EMFs on osteogenesis: an experimental study on rats -
Article in Portugese]
. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo May;47(3):128-130. LIM-41, Instituto
de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao
Paulo. The authors studied experimentally the PEMF effects in an experimental model in rats, for
evaluation of the velocity of consolidation of tibial and fibular fractures. The animals were followed
for a period of 3 wk under continuous stimulation and there were done radiological evaluation
weekly and histological study at the end of the study. There were no histological, clinical or
radiological differences between the group of rats submitted to PEMFs and the control group.
PMID: 1340586, UI: 94053290
Darendeliler MA, Darendeliler A, Sinclair PM (1997) Effects of static magnetic and pulsed
EMFs on bone healing
. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 12(1):43-53. Discipline of
Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Univ of Sydney, Australia. The purpose of the present study
was to evaluate the healing pattern of an experimentally induced osteotomy in Hartley guinea pigs
in the presence of static magnetic and PEMFs. The sample consisted of 30 Hartley guinea pigs 2 wk
of age divided into 3 groups: pulsed EM, static magnetic, and control. An osteotomy was performed
in the mandibular postgonial area in all groups under general anesthesia. During the experimental
period of 9 d, the animals were kept in experiment cages 8 h/d, the first two groups being in the
presence of pulsed EM and static magnetic field, respectively. Based on histologic results, both
static and PEMFs seemed to accelerate the rate of bone repair when compared to the control group.
The osteotomy sites in the control animals consisted of connective tissue, while new bone had filled
the osteotomy areas in both magnetic field groups. PMID: 9456617, UI: 98117733
Chen II, Saha S (1987) Analysis of the current distribution in bone produced by pulsed electro-
magnetic field stimulation of bone
. Biomater Artif Cells Artif Organs 15(4):737-744. Dept of
Physiology and Biophysics, Louisiana State Univ Med Ctr, Shreveport 71130. Pulsed EM
stimulation is being increasingly used by orthopaedic surgeons to treat non-unions and congenital
pseudoarthrosis. In this paper a theoretical model is developed to analyze the distribution of induced
current in bone due to a PEMF, produced by a pair of Helmholtz coils. The result shows that the
induced current density is dependent of the electrical properties of bone, geometry of the coils and
their location. PMID: 3452430, UI: 88252360
Capanna R, Donati D, Masetti C, Manfrini M, Panozzo A, Cadossi R, Campanacci M (1994) Effect
of EMFs on patients undergoing massive bone graft following bone tumor resection: A double
blind study
. Clin Orthop Sep;306:213-221. Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Clinica Ortopedica I,
Universita di Bologna, Italy. Massive bone allograft after tumor resection has been used for >20 yr.
Many factors negatively influence the healing of the junction between the allograft and the host
bone, resulting in a low healing rate and lengthy time to union. This study evaluated whether PEMF
stimulation could be advantageously used in these patients. A double blind prospective randomized
study was designed. 83 host graft junctions in 47 patients were considered. The overall host graft
junction healing rate was the same (67%) in both control and active stimulated patients. Although
not statistically significant, a positive effect of PEMFs was seen for those host graft junctions with a
cortico-cortical contact between allograft and host bone. When adjuvant postoperative
chemotherapy was not used, a definite effect of PEMF stimulation was seen: the healing time
decreased from 9.4 mo in the control group to 6.7 mo in the active stimulated group (p<.001). This
effect would have been lost if chemotherapy was employed. There was also no advantage in
supplement with iliac crest autografts at the host graft junction site if chemotherapy was used.
Factors that significantly influenced the host graft junction healing rate were: chemotherapy; type of
allograft host bone contact; quality of host graft junction; and, in intercalary allografts, use of the
osteosynthesis device. No difference was noted between control and active groups for patient
survival or number of local or distal tumor recurrences. Publication Types: Clinical trial
Randomized controlled trial PMID: 8070199, UI: 94349691
Alexa O (1996) [Electrically induced osteogenesis. II. Experimental studies - Article in
Romanian].
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi Jan;100(1-2):62-65. Disciplina de Ortopedie,
Facultatea de Medicina, Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Gr. T. Popa, Iasi. The paper
presents the possibilities to induce osteogenesis using different types of electrical current. The direct
current may be used with invasive or semi-invasive methods. Electrodes are placed internally, near
the bone. Experiments showed that the optimum stimulation is achieved with current between 5 and
20 uA. The capacitive current is able to induce osteogenesis. The electrodes are placed externally;
between the electrodes there is an electric field with the value ranged 1-10 mV/cm. The method of
PEMFs is based on the field produced by a coil placed externally. The magnetic field range between
0, 1 and 20 Gauss. This is the most appreciate method because is noninvasive and offered the best
experimental results. Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial PMID: 9455398, UI: 98116576
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on bone tissue like
formation are dependent on the maturation stages of the osteoblasts.


Department of Orthodontics, Kagoshima University Dental School, Kagoshima, Japan.
The effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF, 15 Hz pulse burst, 7 mT peak) stimulation on
bone tissue-like formation on osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cell line) in different stages of maturation
were assessed to determine whether the PEMF stimulatory effect on bone tissue-like formation was
associated with the increase in the number of cells and/or with the enhancement of the cellular
differentiation. The cellular proliferation (DNA content), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase
activity), and bone tissue-like formation (area of mineralized matrix) were determined at different
time points. PEMF treatment of osteoblasts in the active proliferation stage accelerated cellular
proliferation, enhanced cellular differentiation, and increased bone tissue-like formation. PEMF
treatment of osteoblasts in the differentiation stage enhanced cellular differentiation and increased
bone tissue-like formation. PEMF treatment of osteoblasts in the mineralization stage decreased
bone tissue-like formation. In conclusion, PEMF had a stimulatory effect on the osteoblasts in the
early stages of culture, which increased bone tissue-like formation. This stimulatory effect was most
likely associated with enhancement of the cellular differentiation, but not with the increase in the number of cells. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteointegration of
hydroxyapatite implants in cancellous bone: a morphologic and microstructural in
vivo study.

,
.
milena.fini@ior.it
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs, 75 Hz. 1.6 mT) were investigated in 12 rabbits
after placing hydroxyapatite (HA) implants in their femoral condyles. Six animals were stimulated
with PEMFs for three consecutive weeks, 6 h/day, while the remaining animals were sham-treated
(Control Group). Rabbits were sacrificed at 3 and 6 weeks (after a 3-week non-stimulation period)
for histomorphometric analysis and microhardness testing (at 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000 microm from
the implant) around the implants. Histomorphometric analysis did not highlight any significant
changes. On the contrary, there were statistically significant differences between the effects
produced by PEMFs and Control Groups (F = 149.70, p < 0.0005) on the Affinity Index results, as
well as by the experimental time of 6 and 3 weeks (F = 17.12, p = 0.001) on the same results. In
PEMF-stimulated animals the microhardness (HV) values measured in trabecular bone at a distance
of 200 and 500 microm from the implants, were significantly higher with respect to controls. At 6
weeks, HV values at the bone-implant interface in PEMF-stimulated animals were not significantly
different with respect to normal bone, while they remained significantly lower in control animals.
Both morphological and structural results demonstrated a positive therapeutic effect of PEMFs in
accelerating HA osteointegration in trabecular bone.
PMID: 12168664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Low-frequency pulsed magnetotherapy combined with electrostimulation of biologically
active points in the combined treatment of traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis.

The results of treatment are analyzed in 51 patients (35 with exacerbation of chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis and 16 with chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis). Low-intensity pulsed magnetic therapy of the focus in combination with electric stimulation of segmentary bioactive points, synchronized by the patient's pulse, are proposed to be added to the therapeutic complex. Such a modality improved the regional hemodynamics, promoted liquidation of the postoperative edema on days 1-2 after intervention, and sooner than after traditional therapy repaired the energy of the patient's organism. Morphological evaluation of MRC-5 fibroblasts after stimulation with static magnetic field
and pulsating electromagnetic field.

Pate K, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M, Puckett A, Cason Z. University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA. The quality of tissue repair and the speed with which that repair can be accomplished are the two major variables in the healing of any injury. Today, magnetic field exposure to traumatized areas has shown to be a promising tool in the healing process. The exact mode of action by which radiating and unchanging magnetic fields still has to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphology of MRC-5 fibro-blasts after stimulation with static and pulsating magnetic fields. Under sterile environment, a total of 24 wells were loaded with 50,000 MRC-5 cells each and further divided into three groups. Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to magnetic fields, static and pulsating respectively. Group 3 wells were unexposed and served as the control group. The cells were monitored at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours and representative views were captured using digital analysis techniques. The live cells were screened for cellular mobility, cell distribution, and cellular morphology (size, shape, lysis, and background). After 72 hours, the supernatants and cells of all three groups were collected and MDA analysis was performed to determine possible cellular damage. Group 1 cells continued to grow at a reasonable rate, but there was substantial cell membrane damage (high MDA levels, p < 0.05). Group 2 cells appeared to be very stressed under these conditions especially at the initial phase (24 hours). In conclusion, the use of pulsating magnetic stimulation can be beneficial in the healing process of soft tissues. ◙ Problemi dentali
Lo studio mostra che pazienti affetti da varie malattie orali hanno sperimentato una guarigione più rapida se trattati con applicazioni per 30 minuti al giorno di campi elettromagnetici vibranti (5mT, 30 Hz), oltre che con terapie convenzionali. (V. Hillier-Kolarov & N. Pekaric-Nadj, "PEMF Therapy as an Additional Therapy for Oral Diseases," European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 1st Congress, 23-25 January 1992, Brussels, Belgium.) Questo studio con controllo ha esaminato gli effetti di una terapia aggiuntiva elettromagnetica Diapulse in seguito a chirurgia dentaria. I pazienti hanno ricevuto la terapia una volta al giorno iniziando tra 3 e 5 giorni prima dell'operazione dentaria. La terapia è stata mantenuta fino al momento delle dimissioni dall’ospedale. I risultati mostrano significativi benefici rispetto ai controlli, i quali avevano ricevuto solamente una terapia tradizionale. (L.C. Rhodes, "The Adjunctive Utilization of Diapulse Therapy (Pulsed High Peak Power Electromagnetic Energy) in Accelerating Tissue Healing in Oral Surgery," Q National Dental Association, 40(1), 1981, p. 4-11.) Questo studio con placebo di controllo ha esaminato gli effetti dei micromagneti nel trattamento di malattie peridentali. I micromagneti venivano applicati alla pelle nelle aree infiammate per un periodo compreso tra 1 e 8 giorni, usando alla volta un numero di magneti tra 1 e 6. Il corso del trattamento durò 4 settimane. I risultati hanno indicato che i pazienti sottoposti a micromagneto-terapia in seguito a chirurgia dentaria hanno sperimentato guarigioni più precoci e meno problematiche, oltre che meno dolore rispetto ai controlli. (V.E. Kriokshina, et al., "Use of Micromagnets in Stomatology," Magnitologiia, (1), 1991, p. 17-20.)


Osteoporosi

I risultati di questo studio affermano che l’uso di campi magnetici a bassa frequenza su tutto il corpo è efficace nei trattamenti di pazienti che soffrono di osteoporosi e relativi sintomi. Il trattamento consiste in un totale di 15 esposizioni di 30 minuti. (G. Saveriano & S. Ricci, "Treatment of Senile Osteoporosis Caused Rachialgia with Low-Frequency PEMFs," Journal of Bioelectr, 8(2), 1989, p. 321.) In questo studio i malati di osteoporosi hanno ricevuto trattamenti con impulsi elettromagnetici per 20 sessioni di 30 minuti ciascuna nel corso di due anni. Questi soggetti sono stati confrontati ai pazienti trattati con calcitonina. I risultati indicavano che il PEMF è efficace nel ridurre il dolore e lo è ancora di più se associato ai trattamenti con farmaci convenzionali. (T.W. Bilotta, et al., "The Use of Low-Frequency Low Magnitude PEMFs in Treatment of Osteoporosis," Journal of Bioelectr, 8(2), 1989, p. 316.) Lo studio ha esaminato gli effetti a lungo termine di impulsi elettromagnetici sotto forma di pulsazioni ripetitive di onde alterne per un periodo superiore a 6 mesi in ratti con osteoporosi. I risultati mostrano l’incremento del volume osseo e dell’attività di produzione. (S. Mishima, "The Effect of Long-term Pulsing Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on Experimental Osteoporosis of Rats," Sangyo Ika Daigaku Zasshi, 10(1), March 1, 1988, p. 31-45.) Questo studio ha analizzato gli effetti degli impulsi elettromagnetici sulla osteoporosi dopo la menopausa in topi femmina di 10 mesi. I risultati mostrano che il trattamento EMF per un’ora al giorno per 4 mesi con una pulsazione massima di 30 gauss riduce la massa ossea con una perdita entro il 10%, mentre con impulsi massimi di 70 gauss riduce totalmente la perdita di massa ossea. (A. Zati, et al., "Effects of Pulsed Magnetic Fields in the Therapy of Osteoporosis Induced Ovariectomy in the Rat," Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper, 69(7-8), July-August 1993, p. 469-475.) Questo studio ha esaminato gli effetti degli impulsi elettromagnetici nelle donne affette da osteoporosi dopo la menopausa. Questo trattamento consisteva in applicazioni quotidiane di 30 minuti per 20 giorni ogni 6 mesi. I risultati dimostravano che il trattamento PEMF associato a 100 IU di spray nasale sintetico al salmone calcitonina arrestava la diminuzione dell’osso e aumentava significativamente la massa dell’osso rispetto ai pazienti che ricevevano solo terapie a base di farmaci. (T.W. Bilotta, et al., "Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis," First World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 14-19 June 1992, Lake Buena Vista, FL, p. 78.) Questo studio ha esaminato gli effetti di impulsi elettromagnetici di 72 Hz applicati per 10 ore al giorno per 12 settimane sulla densità ossea in donne con tendenza all’osteoporosi. I risultati hanno riscontrato significativi miglioramenti nella densità minerale nella zona esposta al EMF. (F. Tabrah, et al., "Bone Density Changes in Osteoporosis-prone Women Exposed to Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs)," Journal of Bone Miner Res, 5(5), May 1990, p. 437-442.) Osteonecrosi
Lo studio ha esaminato l’uso di mpulsi elettromagnetici nel trattamento di osteonecrosi. Nel confronto con le pubblicazioni inerenti al trattamento chirurgico, i risultati mostrano che la terapia PEMF dà esiti superiori. (M. Hinsenkamp, et al., "Preliminary Results in Electromagnetic Field Treatment of Osteonecrosis," Bioelectrochem Bioenerg., 30, 1993, p. 229-236.) Questo studio pilota ha trovato che l’uso di impulsi elettromagnetici produce effetti benefici in pazienti sofferenti di osteonecrosi della testa del femore. (N.S. Eftekhar, et al., "Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head Treated Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs): A
Preliminary Report," Hip, 1983, p. 306-330.)

Bone density changes in osteoporosis-prone women exposed to pulsed
electromagnetic fields (PEMFs).

,
University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Straub Clinic and Hospital, Honolulu.
To determine the effect of a 72 Hz pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF) on bone density
of the radii of osteoporosis-prone women, the nondominant forearms of 20 subjects were
exposed to PEMF 10 h daily for a period of 12 weeks. Bone density before, during, and after
the exposure period was determined by use of a Norland-Cameron bone mineral analyzer.
Bone mineral densities of the treated radii measured by single-photon densitometry
increased significantly in the immediate area of the field during the exposure period and
decreased during the following 36 weeks. A similar but weaker response occurred in the
opposite arm, suggesting a "cross-talk" effect on the nontreated radii, from either possible
arm proximity during sleep or very weak general field effects. The data suggest that
properly applied PEMFs, if scaled for whole-body use, may have clinical application in the
prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Publication Types:
PMID: 2195843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE Lesioni dei nervi
I risultati di questo studio controllato dimostrano che il trattamento giornaliero per 15 minuti con impulsi elettromagnetici ha migliorato il tempo di guarigione dei nervi dei topi danneggiati sperimentalmente. (A.R. Raji & R.E. Bowden, "Effects of High-peak Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on the Degeneration and Regeneration of the Common Peroneal Nerve in Rats," Journal of Bone Joint Surg, 65(4), August 1983, p. 478-492.) I risultati di questo studio indicano che l’utilizzo di impulsi elettromagnetici su nervi tagliati sperimentalmente e suturati nei topi accelera la rigenerazione di nervi danneggiati, e il tempo necessario alla membra per ristabilirsi. (A.M. Raji, "An Experimental Study of the Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (Diapulse) on Nerve Repair," Journal of Hand Surg, 9(2), June 1984, p. 105-112.) Questo studio con controllo ha riscontrato che l’esposizione a impulsi elettromagnetici ha aumentato la velocità e il grado di rigenerazione dei nervi periferici in ratti a cui era stato tagliato sperimentalmente il nervo sciatico. (H. Ito & C.A. Bassett, "Effect of Weak, Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields on Neural Regeneration in the Rat," Clin Orthop, (181), December 1983, p. 283-290.) Questo studio ha esaminato gli effetti di un “Soviet Pulius-1” con un apparecchio per la terapia magnetica a bassa frequenza dovrebbe essere somministrato circa a 10mT per circa 10 minuti in pazienti con nervo ottico atrofico. I pazienti si sottoposero a 10-15 sessioni per corso. I risultati mostrano che una acuità visiva in pazienti con bassi valori (sotto i 0.04 di diottria) sono migliorati nel 50% dei casi. Si è visto anche che il trattamento migliora la fluidità del sangue oculare in casi di nervo ottico atrofico. Si sperimentarono ottimi benefici dopo 10 sessioni di terapia. (L.V. Zobina, et al., "Effectiveness of Magnetotherapy in Optic Nerve Atrophy. A Preliminary Study," Vestn Oftalmol, 106(5), September-October 1990, p. 54-57.) A multivariate approach to the treatment of peripheral nerve transection
injury: the role of electromagnetic field therapy.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield.
A multivariate approach to the treatment of peripheral nerve transection injury has been
used in a rat model. A pilot study (48 animals, 8 groups) examined variables associated with
the method and timing of surgical repair, the arrest of wallerian degeneration, and the role of
pulsing electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in functional recovery. A second phase (90
animals, 6 groups) then studied the timing and duration of pulsing electromagnetic field
therapy as the only variable in larger groups of animals. The pilot study revealed that a vein-
graft conduit did not improve functional recovery compared with standard epineurial repair.
Additionally, delayed repair compared favorably with immediate repair. The use of
chlorpromazine to inhibit the toxic effects of calcium influx appeared to enhance early
functional recovery, and the combination of delayed nerve repair and pulsing
electromagnetic field therapy seemed to consistently improve function. The second phase of
the study has demonstrated (for the first time) statistical improvement in ambulation in
animals treated with delayed surgical repair and prolonged pulsing electromagnetic field
therapy. We postulate that future treatment of nerve transection injuries will involve a
combined treatment regimen consisting of the immediate arrest of wallerian degeneration,
delayed surgery, and pulsing electromagnetic field therapy.
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic stimulation on facial nerve regeneration.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center,
Oklahoma City, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if exposure to electromagnetic fields influences regeneration of
the transected facial nerve in the rat. DESIGN AND METHODS: The left facial nerve was
transected in the tympanic section of the fallopian canal in 24 rats randomly assigned to 2
groups. The cut ends of the facial nerve were reapproximated without sutures within the
fallopian canal to maximize the potential for regeneration. Rats in the experimental group
(n= 12) were then exposed to pulsed electromagnetic stimulation (0.4 millitesla at 120 Hz)
for 4 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks. Rats in the control group (n=12) were handled in an identical manner without pulsed electromagnetic stimulation. Four other rats were given sham operations in which all surgical procedures were carried out except for the actual nerve transection. Two of these rats were placed in each group. Nerve regeneration was evaluated using electroneurography (compound action potentials), force of whisker and eyelid movements, and voluntary facial movements before and at 2-week intervals after transection. Histological evaluation was performed at 10 weeks after transection. Each dependent variable was analyzed using a 2-way analysis of variance with 1 between variable (groups) and 1 within repeated measures variable (days after transection). RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated that N1 (the negative deflection of depolarization phase of the muscle and/or nerve fibers) area, N1 amplitude, and N1 duration, as well as absolute amplitude of the compound action potentials, were all significantly greater 2 weeks after transection in the experimental than in the control group of rats. The force of eye and whisker movements after electrical stimulation was statistically greater in the experimental group of rats 4 weeks after transection. Voluntary eye movements in the experimental group were significantly better at 5 and 10 weeks, while whisker movements were better at 3 and 10 weeks. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups for any histological variable. CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that pulsed electromagnetic stimulation enhances early regeneration of the transected facial nerve in rats. PMID: 9559684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE Cicatrizzazione delle ferite
Dopo una discussione della meccanica coinvolta nell’uso dell’energia elettromagnetica pulsante nella cura di malattie, l’autore discute gli esiti di recenti studi sull’efficacia della terapia nella cura delle lesioni acute dei tessuti molli. (G.C. Coats, "Pulsed Electromagnetic (Short-Wave) Energy Therapy," British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(4), 1989, p. 213-216.) I risultati di questo studio con controllo indicano che il trattamento con impulsi magnetici, soli o combinati con una terapia al laser, mostra effetti benefici per quanto riguarda lesioni di nervi periferici e generale guarigione delle ferite, rispetto ai pazienti di controllo. (B. Vukovic-Jankovic, et al., "Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Stimu-lated Pulsating Electromagnetic (PEMF) Field and Laser," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.) I risultati di questo studio con placebo di controllo indicano che radiazioni di microonde continue a bassa intensità somministrate in un periodo di 7 giorni sono efficaci nella cura di ferite purulente post-chirurgiche associate a chirurgia addominale. (N.N. Korpan & T. Saradeth, "Clinical Effects of Continous Microwave for Postoperative Septic Wound Treatment: A Double-Blind Controlled Trial," American Journal of Surgery, 170(3), 1995, p. 271-276.) I risultati di questo studio controllato dimostrano che campi magnetici pulsanti a bassa frequenza producono effetti benefici significativi nella guarigione di ferite cutanee nei ratti. (O. Patino, et al., "Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats," Journal of Burn Care Rehabil, 17(6 PT 1), 1996, p. 528-531.) I risultati di questo studio dimostrano che una terapia magneto/laser combinata riduce infiammazioni e suppurazioni delle ferite ed aiuta notevolmente la rigenerazione dei tessuti nei pazienti con ferite da arma da fuoco, rispetto al solo trattamento convenzionale. (N. Bairamov, et al., "Magnetolaser Therapy in Complex Treatment of Gunshot Wounds," All-Union Symposium: Laser and Magnetic Therapy in Experimental and Clinical Studies, 16-18 June 1993, Obnisk, Kaluga Region, Russia, p. 184-185.) Osservando che gli impulsi elettromagnetici vengono usati nella cura delle ossa da più di 20 anni, questo articolo cita recenti risultati di sperimentazioni sia su animali che su uomini, riguardanti l’efficacia della PEMF nella cura delle lesioni dei tessuti molli. (B.F. Sisken & J. Walker, "Therapeutic Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields for Soft-Tissue Healing," in M. Blank, (ed.), Electromagnetic Fields: Biological Interactions and Mechanisms, Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1995, p. 277-285.) Questo studio controllato ha esaminato gli effetti dei campi elettromagnetici in alcuni pazienti affetti da infiammazioni produttive croniche dei tessuti orbitali. La cura PEMF consisteva di 7-10 minuti di esposizione giornaliera per un periodo di 10 giorni. I campioni di controllo hanno ricevuto solo una cura convenzionale. Entrambi i gruppi hanno mostrato buoni miglioramenti, ma i pazienti curati con PEMF sono guariti in modo notevolmente più veloce rispetto ai campioni di controllo. (L.S. Teren'eva, et al., "Treatment of Chronic Productive Inflammation of Orbital Tissues with a Pulsed Electromagnetic Field," Oftalmol Zh, 1, 1996, p. 1-5.) Questo studio doppio cieco con placebo di controllo esamina gli effetti di un dispositivo per la cura magnetica applicato sul tunnel carpale contro il dolore al polso di cui soffriva, al lavoro, un gruppo di lavoratori turchi. I risultati hanno dimostrato l’efficacia di questo dispositivo nell’alleviare questo tipo di dolore senza effetti collaterali. (. M.J. McLean, et al., "Treatment of Wrist Pain in the Work Place with a Static ) Questo studio doppio cieco con placebo di controllo ha dimostrato che la cura con energia pulsante a radiofrequenza non termica accellera la guarigione di lesioni del midollo spinale affette da ulcere di pressione di II e III grado. La cura RF consiste in energia pulsata a 27.12 MHz per via di un dispositivo diapulse, con l’energia che viene rilasciata attraverso un dispositivo (head) curativo situato nella medicazione della ferita, per 30 minuti due volte al giorno per 12 settimane o fino alla guarigione delle ferite. (C.A. Salzberg, et al., "The Effects of Non-Thermal Pulsed Electromagnetic Energy on Wound Healing of Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study," Ostomy Wound Manage, 41(3), 1995, p. 42-51.) Questo studio doppio cieco esamina gli effetti nel periodo postoperatorio di impulsi magnetici non termici ad elevata frequenza su formazione di edema e lividi nei ragazzi sottoposti a orchidopessia. La cura comporta applicazioni 3 volte al giorno per i 4 giorni seguenti l’operazione. Sono stati riportati esiti significativi nel tasso di guarigione dei lividi nei pazienti riceventi la cura sperimentata, rispetto ai controlli. (R.H.C. Bentall & H.B. Eckstein, "A Trial Involving the Use of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Therapy on Children Undergoing Orchidopexy," Z. Kinderchir, 17(4), 1975, p. 380-389.) Questo studio ha esaminato gli effetti dei campi elettromagnetici statici nelle ferite post- chirurgiche in 21 pazienti sottoposti a chirurgia plastica. Sono stati posti sulla zona dell’intervento dei cerotti elettromagnetici dallo spessore di 1-6 mm, e una forza di 2450-3950 G per un totale di 98 ore. I magneti sono stati applicati a13 pazienti dopo che il dolore o l’edema erano comparsi, mentre 8 pazienti li hanno usati come profilattici. I risultati hanno mostrato una attenuazione di dolore, edema e colorazione approssimativamente nel 60% dei pazienti. Questi sintomi sono scomparsi interamente nel 75% dei casi. (D. Man, et al., "Effect of Permanent Magnetic Field on Postoperative Pain and Wound Healing in Plastic Surgery," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.) I risultati di questo studio hanno indicato che i campi elettromagnetici a intermittenza sono stati un efficace trattamento preventivo per pazienti affetti mal di testa cervicale e di emicrania. (J. Giczi & A. Guseo, "Treatment of Headache Pulsating Electromagnetic Field a Preliminary Report," Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 74-76.) In questo studio, 90 pazienti con cefalea sono stati trattati con campi magnetici a intermittenza attraverso larghe spirali sul corpo per 20 minuti al giorno per un totale di 15 giorni. I risultati hanno trovato che il trattamento è stato o eccellente o buono per quei pazienti che soffrivano di emicrania, tensione e/o mal di testa cervicali. I pazienti che soffrivano di testa post-traumatici o a grappolo non hanno avuto beneficio. (A. Prusinksi, et al., "Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache," Journal of Bioelectr., 7(1), 1988, p. 127-128.) Questo articolo ha esaminato gli effetti della terapia a onde millimetriche di 107 pazienti che soffrivano il mal di testa per varie cause. Il trattamento consisteva in punti di agopuntura Nao-Hu, Bai-Huei e Hua-Chai che venivano esposti a 5.6 e 4.9 mm di lunghezza d’onda attraverso l’uso dei dispositivi rispettivamente “Yav-1-5.6” o “Electronka-KVCh”. L’esposizione durava fino a 60 minuti al giorno nel corso di 10 giorni. Tutti i pazienti hanno ottenuto risultati positivi dopo 3-5 applicazioni. Dopo un anno, il 48% dei pazienti guarì dal mal di testa, mentre vi fu una diminuzione significativa di un altro 41 %. (B.M. Popov & T.A. Al'shanskaya, "Use of Traditional and Non-traditional Methods in the Treatment of Headache," Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology. Digest of Papers of the 11th Russian Symposium with International Participation, April 21-24, 1997, Zvenigorod, Moscow Region, Russia, p. 68-71.) Questo articolo riguarda il caso di un paziente con emicrania acuta, il quale è stato curato con successo con campi magnetici esterni. (R. Sandyk, "The Influence of the Pineal Gland on Migraine and Cluster Headaches and Effects of Treatment with picoTesla Magnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 67(1-4), November-December 1992, p. 145-171.) Questo studio doppio cieco con placebo di controllo ha esaminato gli effetti dei campi elettromagnetici a intermittenza (2-5 Hz e densità di flusso di 3-4 mT) su pazienti affetti da emicrania. PEMF sono stati applicati alla testa per 10-15 minuti al giorno per un periodo di 30 giorni. I risultati mostrano un leggero miglioramento nel 66% nei pazienti trattati, rispetto a solo il 23% tra il campione di controllo. (L. Lazar & A. Farago, "Experiences of Patients Suffering from Migraine-Type Headache Treated with Magnetotherapy," Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 137-140.) Questo studio ha esaminato gli effetti dei campi elettromagnetici a intermittenza (20 minuti al giorno per 15 giorni) nel trattamento di pazienti affetti da mal di testa cronico. I risultati indicano che il trattamento è stato molto efficace nei casi di cefalea da tensione, con risultati positivi per l’88% dei casi . Risultati benefici sono stati sperimentati anche in pazienti che soffrivano di emicrania (60%), emicrania cervicale (68%), e mal di testa psicogenici (60%). (A. Prusinski, et al., "Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache," Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 163-166.) Secondo questo studio doppio cieco con controllo, l'applicazione di impulsi magnetiche per meno di un'ora a pazienti affetti da dolori alla testa produce significativi effetti benefici, come mostrano i resoconti dei pazienti oltre ai tracciati dell'EEC. (O. Grunner, et al., "Cerebral Use of a Pulsating Magnetic Field in Neuropsychiatry Patients with Long-term Headache," EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Verwandte Geb, 16(4), December 1985, p. 227-230.) Summary of a 12-month double-blind, clinical test of magnetic mattress pads.
Carried out by Sanikukal Hospital, Tokyo Communications Hospital and Kouseikai Suzuki Hospital, by Dr. Kazuo Shimodaira. 1990. The mattress pads used in this study were typical full-size pads containing 124 permanent ferrite magnets with magnetic field strengths of 750-950 gauss each. The pads themselves were made oil two sheets of felt with the magnets sandwiched between them. The felt sheets were then wrapped in a cloth cover. The total number of subjects of this double-blind clinical experiment was 431 (216 male, 215 female). 375 subjects were given the magnetic pads, 56 were given non-magnetic pads. None of the 431 subjects knew which pad they were sleeping on. Subjects selected for the experiment were those with chief complaints related to: • Neck and Shoulder pain • Back and Lower Back Pain • Back Pain (general) • Lower Limb Pain • Insomnia • Fatigue To determine the presence of any side effects, blood pressure, hemoglobin, number of erythrocytes, and number of leukocytes were examined before and after the use of the mattress pads. Besides blood sedimentation, and TP, COL, ALP, GOT, GPT, Na, and K were also examined, as were functions of the kidneys, liver, pancreas, and the entire circulatory system. % of # of No % of
Cases Positive Total
Results Total
Out of 375 total subjects with symptoms, 301 (80.27%) reported positive results. 74 cases (19.73%) reported no results. The percentage of subjects who realized the effect of the magnetic mattress pad within 3 days: Neck & Shoulder Pain 46.9% Back & Lower Back Out of 375 total subjects who slept on the magnetic mattress pads, 200 (53.3%) realized the effects within 3 days. Over 70% realized the effects within 5 days. Testing for side effects was conducted at the conclusion of the experiment. Symptoms such as tinnitus, headache, hearing problems, visual disturbances, vertigo, palpitation, perceptive abnormality, motorial disturbance, fever, digestive disturbance, coetaneous symptoms, and other clinical symptoms to suggest any side effects were found to be totally absent. Extensive testing was also done before and after the experiment to check functions of kidneys liver, pancreas, blood pressure, and the circulatory system. No clinical symptoms were found to indicate any side effects whatsoever. Dr. Shimodaira's conclusion of this year-long study conducted in 3 of Japan's foremost hospitals: "The magnetized health mattress pad is proved to be effective on neck and shoulder pain, back and lower back pain, back pain, lower limb pain, insomnia, and fatigue, and to have no side effects." Use of magnetic therapy for chronic pain.
A Johns Hopkins pain center treatment study compared magnetic therapy for chronic pain and a placebo therapy. While some individuals in placebo therapy improved minimally, people using the magnetic therapy showed a dramatic improvement. In addition, there were no side effects from magnetic therapy, thus making it an apparently reasonable choice for those who have tried and rejected traditional therapy. Effects of static magnets on chronic knee pain and physical function: a double-blind study.
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA. CONTEXT: Static magnets have become an increasingly popular alternative therapy for individuals with musculoskeletal pain despite limited scientific evidence to support their efficacy or safety. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of static magnets on the pain and functional limitations associated with chronic knee pain due to degenerative joint disease. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Pretests and posttests were conducted in an academic health science center. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three ambulatory subjects with chronic pain in 1 or both knee joints who were recruited from outpatient clinics or who volunteered to participate. INTERVENTION: Subjects wore pads containing magnets or placebos over their painful knee joints for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-administered ratings of pain and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and a timed 15-m (50-ft) walk. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significantly greater improvements in the group wearing magnets (P=.002). Univariate analyses indicated that comparative changes in self-rated pain and physical function (P=.002 and .001, respectively) were greater than changes in gait speed (P=.042). CONCLUSIONS: The application of static magnets over painful knee joints appears to reduce pain and enhance functional movement. However, further study is needed to determine the physiological mechanisms responsible for this analgesic effect. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;8(4):50-5. A clinical study on the magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve.
Yamakawa T, Yoshikawa H, Arai A, Miyazaki T, Ichikawa G. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. OBJECTIVES: A clinical study on the usefulness of magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve, with special attention paid to the selection of the coil shape and stimulation procedures. STUDY DESIGN: The subjects consisted of 55 patients with Bell's palsy, 1 patient with a cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor, 1 patient with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 30 normal subjects. Three types of coils were used in this study; a 90-mm large single coil, a 40-mm small single coil, and a 20-mm small double coil. METHODS: The compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and long latency response were evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a 90-mm large single coil. The 40-mm small single coil was used to test blink reflex by aiming it at the supraorbital nerve as the target site. The subcutaneous activation of the infra-auricular facial nerve was performed with the 20-mm double coil. RESULTS: The reproducible CMAP and long latency responses were obtained from normal subjects with TMS. However, responses were observed only in patients with relatively mild Bell's palsy. The magnetic stimulation-evoked responses reflected the brainstem function in the patients with a CPA tumor and MS. CONCLUSION: Although magnetic stimulation remains inferior to conventional electric stimulation in some sense and requires further study, this method is potentially useful because it can stimulate the facial nerve continuously from the cortex to the periphery and can effectively evoke responses reflecting the brainstem function. Extensive reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in chronic back pain patients.
Department of Psychology, Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany. hflor@rz.hu-berlin.de The hypothesis of reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex in states of chronic pain was assessed in 10 low back pain patients and nine matched healthy controls. Intracutaneous electric stimuli were applied to the left back and index finger at a standard, a non-painful and a painful intensity. Magnetic fields were recorded by a 37-channel BTi biomagnetometer from the hemisphere contralateral to the site of stimulation. The power of the early evoked magnetic field (< 100 ms) elicited by painful stimulation of the painful back in very chronic patients was elevated relative to that elicited by painful back stimulation of healthy controls and showed a linear increase with chronicity (r = 0.74). The maximum activity elicited in primary somatosensory cortex was shifted more medially in the very chronic back pain subjects. These data suggest that chronic pain is accompanied by cortical reorganization and may serve an important function in the persistence of the pain experience. Pulsed high frequency (27MHz) electromagnetic therapy for persistent neck pain. A double
blind, placebo-controlled study of 20 patients.

Foley-Nolan D, Barry C, Coughlan RJ, O'Connor P, Roden D. Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. In the majority of patients with neck pain, symptoms will resolve spontaneously or quite quickly in response to therapy. However, some patients' symptoms persist for a long period, irrespective of therapy. In this study, 20 patients with persistent (greater than 8 weeks) neck pain were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial of low energy, pulsed electromagnetic therapy (PEMT)--a treatment previously shown to be effective in soft tissue injuries. For the first 3-week period, group A (10 patients) received active PEMT units while group B (10 patients) received facsimile placebo units. After 3 weeks, both pain (visual analogue scale (P less than .023) and range of movement (P less than .002) had improved in the group on active treatment compared to the controls. After the second 3 weeks, during which both groups used active units, there were significant improvements in observed scores for pain and range of movement in both groups. PEMT, in the form described, can be used at home easily in the treatment of patients with neck pain. It is frequently successful and without side effects. Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of pain in patients with lumbar
radiculopathy or the whiplash syndrome.

International Society of Energy Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Back pain and the whiplash syndrome are very common diseases involving tremendous costs and extensive medical effort. A quick and effective reduction of symptoms, especially pain, is required. In two prospective randomized studies, patients with either lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 or the whiplash syndrome were investigated. Inclusion criteria were as follows: either clinically verified painful lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 and a Lasegue's sign of 30 degrees (or more), or typical signs of the whiplash syndrome such as painful restriction of rotation and flexion/extension. Exclusion criteria were prolapsed intervertebral discs, systemic neurological diseases, epilepsy, and pregnancy. A total of 100 patients with lumbar radiculopathy and 92 with the whiplash syndrome were selected and entered in the study following a 1:1 ratio. Both groups (magnetic field treatment and controls) received standard medication consisting of diclofenac and tizanidine, while the magnetic field was only applied in group 1, twice a day, for a period of two weeks. In patients suffering from radiculopathy, the average time until pain relief and painless walking was 8.2 +/- 0.5 days in the magnetic field group, and 11.7 +/- 0.5 days in controls (p < 0.04). In patients with the whiplash syndrome, pain was measured on a ten-point scale. Pain in the head was on average 4.6 before and 2.1 after treatment in those receiving magnetic field treatment, and 4.2/3.5 in controls. Neck pain was on average 6.3/1.9 as opposed to 5.3/4.6, and pain in the shoulder/arm was 2.4/0.8 as opposed to 2.8/2.2 (p < 0.03 for all regions). Hence, magnetic fields appear to have a considerable and statistically significant potential for reducing pain in cases of lumbar radiculopathy and the whiplash syndrome. The study of effects of static magnetic field on SP-mRNA in trigeminal ganglion in
rats.

Faculty of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110002, China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of static magnetic field on the expression of SP-mRNA in TG in rats. METHODS: 44 Wistar rats aged 6-7 weeks were put into static magnetic field and were sacrificed at 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, respectively. In situ hybridization method was used to evaluate the changes of SP-mRNA expression at different time point. RESULTS: Many neurons in TG were marked with SP probes in each group, the expression of SP-mRNA increased remarkably in static magnetic field group. In this group, the percentage of SP-mRNA positive neurons in TG increased greatly in 1 h, reached its peak in 2 h, from then on, decrease of the percentage started slowly but a moderate percentage was kept until 24 h, which was thought to be enough to maintain orthodontic tooth movement. The tendency of control group was almost the same with that of experimental group. The expression of SP-mRNA was higher in experimental group within 2 h but became lower after 2 h as compared with control group, this indicated that magnetic field reduced the SP-mRNA expression and exerted restoring effect on trauma. There were significant differences between experimental groups and control group at different time points (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The expression of SP-mRNA in TG in rats increased significantly in static magnetic field.

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Pii: s0899-9007(98)00063-x

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