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Descriptors for coffee (<i>coffea</i> spp. and <i>psilanthus</i> spp.)

Descriptors for Coffee
(Coffea spp. and Psilanthus spp.) ternational Plant Genetic Resources Institut
Descriptors for Coffee
Descriptors for Coffee
Definitions and Use of the Descriptors
IPGRI now uses the following definitions in genetic resources documentation: Passport descriptors: These provide the basic information used for the general managementof the accession (including the registration at the genebank and other identificationinformation) and describe parameters that should be observed when the accession isoriginally collected.
Management descriptors: These provide the basis for the management of accessions inthe genebank and assist with their multiplication and regeneration.
Environment and site descriptors: These describe the environmental and site-specificparameters that are important when characterization and evaluation trials are held. Theycan be important for the interpretation of the results of those trials. Site descriptors forgermplasm collecting are also included here.
Characterization descriptors: These enable an easy and quick discrimination betweenphenotypes. They are generally highly heritable, can be easily seen by the eye and areequally expressed in all environments. In addition, these may include a limited numberof additional traits thought desirable by a consensus of users of the particular crop.
Evaluation descriptors: Many of the descriptors in this category are susceptible toenvironmental differences but are generally useful in crop improvement and others mayinvolve complex biochemical or molecular characterization. They include yield, agronomicperformance, stress susceptibilities and biochemical and cytological traits.
Characterization will normally be the responsibility of genebank curators, while evaluation will typically be carried out elsewhere (possibly by a multidisciplinary team of scientists).
The evaluation data should be fed back to the genebank which will maintain a data file.
Minimum highly discriminating descriptors are marked with a star («).
The following internationally accepted norms for the scoring, coding and recording of (a) the Système International d’Unités (SI system) is used. The units to be applied are given in square brackets following the descriptor name; (b) standard colour charts, e.g. Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart, Methuen Handbook of Colour, or Munsell Color Chart for Plant Tissues, are stronglyrecommended for all ungraded colour characters (the precise chart used should bespecified in the section where it is used); Descriptors for Coffee
(c) many quantitative characters which are continuously variable are recorded on a 1-9 is the expression of a character. The authors of this list have sometimes described onlya selection of the states, e.g. 3, 5 and 7 for such descriptors. Where this has occurred,the full range of codes is available for use by extension of the codes given or byinterpolation between them, e.g. in Section 9 (Biotic stress susceptibility), 1 = very lowsusceptibility and 9 = very high susceptibility; (d) when a descriptor is scored using a 1-9 scale, such as in (c), ‘0’ would be scored when (i) the character is not expressed; (ii) when a descriptor is inapplicable. In the followingexample, ‘0’ will be recorded if an accession does not have a central leaf lobe: Shape of central leaf lobe
(e) absence/presence of characters is scored as in the following example: Absence/presence of terminal leaflet
(f) blanks are used for information not yet available; (g) for accessions which are not generally uniform for a descriptor (e.g. mixed collection, genetic segregation), the mean and standard deviation could be reported where thedescriptor is continuous. Where the descriptor is discontinuous, several codes in theorder of frequency could be recorded; or other publicized methods can be utilized,such as R.S. Rana et al. (1991), or van Hintum (1993), that clearly state a method forscoring heterogeneous accessions; (h) dates should be expressed numerically in the format DDMMYYYY, where YYYY - 4 digits to represent the year.
Descriptors for Coffee
1. Accession descriptors
Accession number
« This number serves as a unique identifier for accessions and is assigned when an accession is entered into the collection. Once assigned this number should never be reassigned toanother accession in the collection. Even if an accession is lost, its assigned number is stillnot available for re-use. Letters should be used before the number to identify the genebankor national system (e.g. IDG indicates an accession that comes from the genebank at Bari,Italy; CGN indicates an accession from the genebank at Wageningen, The Netherlands; PIindicates an accession within the USA system).
Donor name
Name of institution or individual responsible for donating the germplasm Donor number
Number assigned to an accession by the donor Other number(s) associated with the accession
« Any other identification number known to exist in other collections for this accession, e.g.
USDA Plant Inventory number (not Collecting number, see 2.3). Other numbers can be
added as 1.4.3, etc.
Other number 1
Other number 2
Scientific name
Botanical variety
Parentage or nomenclature, and designations assigned to breeders’ material Cultivar name

Cultivar name
Either a registered or other formal cultivar designation given to the accession Translation/Transliteration
Provide translation of the local cultivar name into English Descriptors for Coffee
Include here any previous identification other than the current name. Collectingnumber or newly assigned station name are frequently used as identifiers.
Acquisition date [DDMMYYYY]
Date on which the accession entered the collection Type of material received
Other (specify in descriptor 1.11 Notes)
Accession size
Approximate number of seed progeny of an accession introduced into the genebank Any additional information may be specified here 2. Collecting descriptors
Collecting institute(s)
« Institute(s) and people collecting/sponsoring the sample collection Site number
Number assigned to the physical site by the collector Collecting number
Original number assigned by the collector(s) of the sample, normally composed of thename or initials of the collector(s) followed by a number. This item is essential for identifyingduplicates held in different collections. It should be unique and always accompanysubsamples wherever they are sent.
Collecting date of original sample [DDMMYYYY]
Country of collecting
Name of the country in which the sample was collected or bred. Use the three-letterabbreviations from the International Standard (ISO) Codes for the representation of names ofcountries, No. 3166, 4th Edition. Copies of these are available from DIN: Deutsche Institutfür Normung e.V., 10772 Berlin, Germany; Tel. 30-2601-2860; Fax 30-2601-1231, Tlx. 184273-din-d.
Descriptors for Coffee
Name of the primary administrative subdivision of the country in which the sample wascollected Department/County
Name of the secondary administrative subdivision (within a Province/State) of the countryin which the sample was collected Location of collecting site
Distance in kilometers and direction from the nearest town, village or map grid referencepoint (e.g. CURITIBA 7S means 7 km south of Curitiba) Latitude of collecting site
Degrees and minutes followed by N (North) or S (South) (e.g. 1030S) Longitude of collecting site
Degrees and minutes followed by E (East) or W (West) (e.g. 07625W) Elevation of collecting site [m asl]
Collecting source
Other (specify in descriptor 2.30 Collector’s notes)
Collecting source environment
Use descriptors 5.1.1 to 5.1.22 in section 5
Descriptors for Coffee
Status of sample
Other (e.g. ‘semi-wild’, ‘subspontaneous’, specify in descriptor 2.30
Collector’s notes
Type of sample
Form of sample collected. If different types of material were collected from the same source,each sample type should be designated with a unique collecting number and acorresponding unique accession number.
Tissue culture (specify which part of the plant is used in descriptor 2.30
Collector’s notes
Population size
Number of genotypes sampled. If estimated, provide method used: (i) row per columncount; (ii) area per plant density; for both, allow for missing stands Population isolation [km]
Straight line distance between two adjacent collecting sites Number of clonal material (stem cuttings) collected [number]
Type of stem cuttings collected
Cropping system
Other (specify crop in descriptor 2.30 Collector’s notes)
Associated flora
Other dominant crop/plant species, found in and around the collecting site Descriptors for Coffee
Cultural practices

Planting date [DDMMYYYY]
First harvest date [DDMMYYYY]
Specify amount, frequency and method of application
Specify in descriptor 2.30 Collector’s notes
Local/vernacular name
« Name given by farmer to crop and cultivar/landrace/weed. State language and dialect if Ethnic group
Name of the tribe of the farmer donating the sample or of the people living in the area ofcollecting Uses of the accession
Other (specify in descriptor 2.30 Collector’s notes)
Was a photograph(s) taken of the accession or habitat at the time of collecting? If so, provide
an identification number(s) in descriptor 2.30 Collector’s notes.
Herbarium specimen
Was a herbarium specimen collected? If so, provide an identification number and indicate
in which place (herbarium) the coffee specimen was deposited, in descriptor 2.30 Collector’s
Prevailing stresses
Information on associated biotic and abiotic stresses. Indicate if disease indexing was done
at the time of collecting in descriptor 2.30 Collector’s notes.
Descriptors for Coffee
Genetic erosion
Estimate of the rate at which genetic erosion of the species is occurring in the region ofcollecting Collector’s notes
Additional information recorded by the collector or any specific information on any statein any of the above descriptors Descriptors for Coffee
3. Plant management descriptors
Accession number
Field preservation
Field location
Planting date [DDMMYYYY]
Root system
(Differs if it is seedling, cutting or grafting) Field duplicates
For each duplicate indicate field location, planting date and root system Field location
Planting date [DDMMYYYY]
Root system
In vitro preservation
Type of explant
Other (specify in descriptor 3.5 Notes)
Introduction date [DDMMYYYY]
Type of subcultured material
Other (specify in descriptor 3.5 Notes)
Regeneration process
Other (specify in descriptor 3.5 Notes)
Descriptors for Coffee
Number of plants at the establishment
Last subculture date [DDMMYYYY]
Medium used at the last subculture
Number of plants at the last subculture
Location after the last subculture
Type of material for cryopreservation
Other (specify in descriptor 3.5 Notes)
Introduction date in liquid nitrogen [DDMMYYYY]
Number of plants introduced in liquid nitrogen
End of storage period [DDMMYYYY]
Number of plants taken from liquid nitrogen
Type of subcultured material for recovery
Other (specify in descriptor 3.5 Notes)
Regeneration process
Other (specify in descriptor 3.5 Notes)
Number of recovery samples
Location after the last subculture
Any additional information may be specified here Descriptors for Coffee
Environment and Site
4. Characterization and/or evaluation site descriptors
Country of characterization and/or evaluation
(See instructions in 2.5 Country of collecting)
Site (research institute)

Degrees and minutes followed by N (North) or S (South) (e.g. 1030S) Longitude
Degrees and minutes followed by E (East) or W (West) (e.g. 07625 W) Elevation [m asl]
Name of farm or institute
Evaluator’s name and address
Planting or last stumping date [DDMMYYYY]
First harvest date [DDMMYYYY]
Last harvest date [DDMMYYYY]
Evaluation environment
Environment in which characterization/evaluation was carried out Other (specify in descriptor 4.15 Notes)
Number of plants established [/ha]
Planting site in field
Give block, strip and/or row/plot numbers as applicable, plants/plot, replication Field spacing

Distance between plants in a row [m]
Distance between rows [m]
Descriptors for Coffee
Environmental characteristics of site
Use descriptors 5.1.1 to 5.1.22 in section 5
Specify types, doses, frequency of each and method of application Irrigation
Plant protection
Specify pesticides, nematicides and fungicides used, doses, frequency of each and methodof application 5. Collecting and/or characterization/evaluation site environment descriptors
Site environment
This refers to the profile in elevation of the land surface on a broad scale.
The reference is FAO (1990) >30%, great elevation range (>300 m) (specify in appropriate section’s Notes)
Higher level landform (general physiographic features)
The landform refers to the shape of the land surface in the area in which the site islocated (adapted from FAO 1990) Descriptors for Coffee
Environment and Site
Land element and position
Description of the geomorphology of the immediate surroundings of the site(adapted from FAO 1990). (See Fig. 1) Drainage line (bottom positionin flat or almost-flat terrain) section’s Notes)
Fig. 1 Land element and position
Descriptors for Coffee
Slope [o]
Slope aspect
The direction that the slope on which the accession was collected faces. Describethe direction with symbols N, S, E, W (e.g. a slope that faces a southwestern directionhas an aspect of SW) Crop agriculture
Overall vegetation surrounding and at the site
Grassland (Grasses, subordinate forbs, no woody species) (Continuous tree layer, crowns overlapping, largenumber of tree and shrub species in distinct layers) Woodland (Continuous tree layer, crowns usually not touching, Shrubland (Continuous layer of shrubs, crowns touching) (Grasses with a discontinuous layer of trees or shrubs) (specify in appropriate section’s Notes)
Soil parent material
(Adapted from FAO 1990)Two lists of examples of parent material and rock are given below. The reliabilityof the geological information and the knowledge of the local lithology willdetermine whether a general or a specific definition of the parent material can begiven. Saprolite is used if the in situ weathered material is thoroughly decomposed,clay-rich but still showing rock structure. Alluvial deposits and colluvium derivedfrom a single rock type may be further specified by that rock type.
Unconsolidated material
Descriptors for Coffee
Environment and Site
appropriate section’s Notes)
Rock type
Soil drainage
Soil salinity
Descriptors for Coffee
Soil depth to groundwater table
(Adapted from FAO 1990)The depth to the groundwater table, if present, as well as an estimate of theapproximate annual fluctuation, should be given. The maximum rise of thegroundwater table can be inferred approximately from changes in profile colourin many, but not all, soils.
Soil matrix colour
(Adapted from FAO 1990)The colour of the soil matrix material in the root zone around the accession isrecorded in the moist condition (or both dry and moist condition, if possible) usingthe notation for hue, value and chroma as given in the Munsell Soil Color Charts(Munsell 1977). If there is no dominant soil matrix colour, the horizon is describedas mottled and two or more colours are given and should be registered underuniform conditions. Early morning and late evening readings are not accurate.
Provide depth of measurement (cm). If colour chart is not available, the followingstates may be used: Actual value of the soil within the following root depths around the accession
pH at 10-15 cm
pH at 16-30 cm
pH at 31-60 cm
pH at 61-90 cm
Soil erosion
Descriptors for Coffee
Environment and Site
Rock fragments
(Adapted from FAO 1990)Large rock and mineral fragments (>2 mm) are described according to abundance Soil texture classes
(Adapted from FAO 1990)For convenience in determining the texture classes of the following list, particlesize classes are given for each of the fine earth fractions below. (See Fig. 2) Fig. 2 Soil texture classes
Descriptors for Coffee
Soil particle size classes
Soil taxonomic classification
As detailed a classification as possible should be given. This may be taken from asoil survey map. State class (e.g. Alfisols, Spodosols, Vertisols, etc.).
Water availability
Other (specify in appropriate section’s Notes)
Soil fertility
General assessment of the soil fertility based on existing vegetation Climate of the site
Should be assessed as close to the site as possible
Temperature [ºC]
Provide either the diurnal (mean, maximum, minimum) or the seasonal(mean, maximum, minimum)
Rainfall [mm]
Annual average (state number of recorded years) Descriptors for Coffee
Environment and Site
Wind [km/s]
Annual average (state number of years recorded)
Frequency of typhoons or hurricane force winds
Date of most recent typhoons or hurricane force winds
Specify seasonal average and minimum survived
Duration of temperature below freezing [d]
Relative humidity
Any additional information may be specified here Descriptors for Coffee
6. Plant descriptors

Plant habit
Shrub or small tree (<5 m - one or more trunks) Plant height
Overall appearance
Vegetative development
Branch-ramification number
Average of ramifications scored on five well-developed branches Branching habit
Many branches (primary) with few secondary branches Many branches (primary) with many secondary branches Many branches (primary) with many secondary and tertiarybranches Angle of insertion of primary branches
Descriptors for Coffee
Stipule shape
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Fig. 3 Stipule shape
Stipule arista length [mm]
Average of five well-developed stipule arista Young leaf colour
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Descriptors for Coffee
Leaf shape
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Fig. 4 Leaf shape
Leaf apex shape
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Fig. 5 Leaf apex shape
Leaf length [mm]
Average of five mature (> node 3 from the terminal bud) leaves, measured frompetiole end to apex Descriptors for Coffee
Leaf width [mm]
Average of five mature (> node 3 from the terminal bud) leaves, measured at thewidest part Leaf petiole length [mm]
Average of five one-year leaves, measured from the base to the insertion with theblade Leaf petiole colour
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Young shoot colour
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Mature leaf colour
Venation pattern
Bud wax colour
Bud wax thickness
Domatia pilosity
Observed with portable lens or binocular lens Shape of the domatia
Shape of the aperture
Position of the domatia
Inflorescence and flowering

Number of days from rainfall to flowering [d]
Inflorescence position
Descriptors for Coffee
Inflorescence on old wood
Number of flowers per axil
Average of 10 axils, randomly selected from different nodes Number of flowers per fascicle
Average of 10 fascicles, randomly selected from different nodes Number of fascicles per node
Average of 10 nodes, randomly selected from different branches Inflorescence stalk length [mm]
Average of five inflorescences, randomly selected from different nodes Corolla tube length [mm]
Average of five flowers, randomly selected from different nodes Number of petals per flower
Average of 10 flowers, randomly selected from different nodes Anther insertion
Number of stamens per flower
Average of 10 flowers, randomly selected from different nodes For recording fruit descriptors, five observations should be made Fructification duration [d]
Number of days between bloom and first harvest. Record the bloom date because,in certain conditions, fructification duration depends on bloom period Fruit colour
descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Descriptors for Coffee
Fruit shape
Average of five normal (not caracoli) mature fruits. (See Fig. 6) Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Fig. 6 Fruit shape
Absence/presence of fruit ribs
Endocarp texture
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Fruit-disc shape
The fruit-disc shape is positioned at the end of the coffee cherry Beaked (apex constricted into bottleneck shape) Calyx limb persistence
Fruit length [mm]
Average of five normal mature green fruits, measured at the largest part Descriptors for Coffee
Fruit width [mm]
Average of five normal mature green fruits, measured at the widest part Fruit thickness [mm]
Average of five normal mature green fruits, measured at the thickest part Pulp thickness
Harvest duration [d]
Seed length [mm]
Maximum length average of five normal mature seeds Seed width [mm]
Average of five normal mature seeds, measured at the widest part Seed thickness [mm]
Average of five normal mature seeds, measured at the thickest part Seed colour
Other (specify in descriptors 6.5 Notes)
Seed shape
Other (specify in descriptor 6.5 Notes)
Any additional information, especially in the category of ‘other’ under various descriptorsabove, may be specified here Descriptors for Coffee
7. Plant descriptors

Trunk diameter [cm]
Measured at 5 cm above ground level in seedling and cutting trees, or 10 cm abovegraft union in grafted tree. Specify approximate tree age Trunk height [cm]
Measured on the highest trunk, from ground level to top. Specify approximatetree age Yield characteristics
For the following descriptors specify the age of tree Berry weight per tree [kg]
Estimated yield
Rate in relation to age and volume of tree Fruit and bean characteristics
Empty-fruit rate [%]
100-bean weight [g]
Calculated at (11% moisture) content as follows: (“Bean weight at 0% moisturecontent” x 100) / (“Bean number” x 0.89) Out-turn [%]
Ratio of trade coffee (at 11% moisture content) weight over mature cherry weight,calculated as follows: (“Bean weight at 0% moisture content” x 100) / (“Maturecherry weight” x 0.89) Fruit-filling coefficient
Ratio of bean number over cherry number. As almost all cherries contain twolocules, the fruit-filling coefficient varies between 0 (sterility) and 2 (completefertility) Descriptors for Coffee
Caracoli-bean rate [%]
Percentage of caracoli (peaberry) beans (rounded beans form) in the sample Empty locules [%]
Biochemical composition
Caffeine content [% DM]
Oil content [% DM]
Sugar content [% DM]
Absence/presence of methylxanthines
Chlorogenic acid content
Refer to the IUPAC numbering system (IUPAC 1976) Caffeoylquinic acid content [% DM]
Dicaffeoylquinic acid content [% DM]
Feruloylquinic acid content [% DM]
Organoleptic value
Descriptors for Coffee
Beverage-test value
Degree of torrefaction
8. Abiotic stress susceptibility
Scored under artificial and/or natural conditions, which should be clearly specified. These
are coded on a susceptibility scale from 1 to 9, viz.:
1 Very low or no visible sign of susceptibility3 Low5 Intermediate7 High9 Very high Mineral deficiencies
Mineral toxicity
Low temperature
High temperature
Descriptors for Coffee
9. Biotic stress susceptibility
In each case, it is important to state the origin of the infestation or infection, i.e. natural, field
inoculation, laboratory. Record such information in descriptor 9.5 Notes. These are coded on a
susceptibility scale from 1 to 9, viz.:
1 Very low or no visible sign of susceptibility3 Low5 Intermediate7 High9 Very high Causal organism
Common name
Hypothenemus hampeii(syn. Stephanoderes hampeii) Nematodes


Gibberella xylarioides(anamorph: Fusarium xylarioides) Descriptors for Coffee
Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae 10. Biochemical markers
For each enzyme, indicate the tissue analysed and the zymogram type. A particular enzymecan be recorded as 10.1.1; 10.1.2, etc. Examples include: Acid phosphatase (ACPH); Esterasesa and ß (EST A and B); Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD); Malate dehydrogenase (MDH);Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD); Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI); Phosphoglucosemutase (PGM) Other biochemical markers
11. Molecular markers
Describe any specific discriminating or useful trait for this accession. Report probe-enzyme
combination analyzed
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
Record the method (used restriction enzyme-probe and analyzed DNA origin, i.e. genomic,chloroplastic or mitochondrial) and the fragment weights Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
Record the experiment conditions (solution compositions, amplifying program), the userprimer sequence and the amplified fragment weights Other molecular markers
(e.g. Specific Amplicon Polymorphism (SAP)) Descriptors for Coffee
12. Cytological characters
Chromosome number
Ploidy level
(e.g. aneuploid or structural rearrangement) Pollen viability
Specify the method, i.e. germination in a solution or grain staining Meiosis chromosome associations
Average of 50 microspore mother cells, observed during metaphase 1 Univalent number per microspore mother cell
Bivalent number per microspore mother cell
Trivalent number per microspore mother cell
Quadrivalent number per microspore mother cell
Incompatibility alleles
Specify the method used and record the allelic group Other cytological characters
13. Identified genes
Describe any known specific mutant present in the accession
Descriptors for Coffee
FAO. 1990. Guidelines for Soil Profile Description, 3rd edition (revised). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Soil Reference Information Centre,Land and Water Development Division. FAO, Rome.
IBPGR. 1980. Working Group on Genetic Resources of Coffea arabica. Coffee Genetic Resources.
International Board for Plant Genetic Resources Report. IBPGR, Rome. 13 p.
IUPAC. 1976. Nomenclature of cyclitols. Biochem. J. 153:23.
Kornerup, A. and J.H. Wanscher. 1984. Methuen Handbook of Colour. Third edition. Methuen, Munsell Color. 1977. Munsell Color Charts for Plant Tissues, 2nd edition, revised. Munsell Color, Macbeth Division of Kollmorgen Corporation, 2441 North Calvert Street,Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.
Rana, R.S., R.L. Sapra, R.C. Agrawal and Rajeev Gambhir. 1991. Plant Genetic Resources.
Documentation and Information Management. National Bureau of Plant GeneticResources (Indian Council of Agricultural Research). New Delhi, India.
Royal Horticultural Society. 1966, c. 1986. R.H.S. Colour Chart [ed. 1, 2]. Royal Horticultural van Hintum, Th. J.L. 1993. A computer compatible system for scoring heterogeneous populations. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 40:133-136.
Descriptors for Coffee
Laboratoire des Ressources Génétiques et de l’Amélioration des Plantes TropicalesORSTOM Unite de formation et de rechercheGenetique et amelioration des plantes2, Place Pierre Viala34060 Montpellier Cedex 1FRANCE Dr R. NaiduDirector of ResearchCentral Coffee Research InsituteCoffee Research Station577 117 Chikmaga (Dt.)KarnatakaINDIA Dr Christophe MontagnonCoffee Genetist CIRAD-CPIDEFOR-DDCCoffee and Cocoa Department01 BP 1827Abidjan 01COTE D’IVOIRE Descriptors for Coffee
Dr Jean Jacques R. RakotomalalaDRA/FOFIFABP 1444Antananarivo 101MADAGASCAR Mr Eshetu Derso KidanuJima Agricultural Research CenterPO Box 192JimaETHIOPIA Dr German Moreno RuizLeader, Plant BreedingCentro Nacional de Investigaciones de café(CENICAFE)‘Pedro Uribe Mejia’Chinchina, CaldasCOLOMBIA Dr Hernando CortinaPlant breederCentro Nacional de Investigaciones de café(CENICAFE)‘Pedro Uribe Mejia’Chinchina, CaldasCOLOMBIA Dr E.B. FrimpongCocoa Research InstitutePrivate Mail BagInternational AirportAccraGHANA Descriptors for Coffee
IPGRI wishes to place on record their sincere thanks to the numerous coffee workers around
the world who have contributed directly or indirectly to the development of the Descriptors
for Coffee
Ms Adriana Alercia supervised the drafting and re-drafting of the text up to the pre- publication stage. Ms Linda Sears edited the text, and Ms Patrizia Tazza drew the cover andthe illustrations and prepared the layout. Mr Paul Stapleton managed the production of thepublication.
The following IPGRI Staff provided substantial technical advice: Drs M. Diekman, F.
Descriptors for Coffee
List of Descriptors
Setaria italica and S. pumilia (E) Vigna aconitifolia and V. trilobata (E) IPGRI publications are available free of charge to the libraries of genebanks, university departments, research institutions, etc. On request to Head, Editorial and Publications Unit, titles may also be made available to individuals who can show that they have a need for a personal copy of a publication. E, F, S and C indicate English, French, Spanish and Chinese, respectively. Titles marked with * are available only as photocopies.


Evidence for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in steroid-dependent asthma David L Hahn, MD*; Don Bukstein, MD*; Allan Luskin, MD*; and Howard Zeitz, MD† Background: Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular respiratory strong association of C. pneumoniae pathogen capable of persistent infection. Seroepidemiologic studies and the resultsof open-label antimicrobial treatment o

236089 1547.1552

Public Health Nutrition: 10(12A), 1547–1552Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and younginfants—complex physiology with a risk of misinterpretationP Laurberg1,*, S Andersen1, RI Bjarnado´ttir2, A Carle´1, AB Hreidarsson2, N Knudsen3,L Ovesen4, IB Pedersen1 and LB Rasmussen41Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark: 2Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjav

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