Norway pharmacy online: Kjøp av viagra uten resept i Norge på nett.

Jeg har selv prøvd dette kamagra Det er billig og fungerer egentlig, jeg likte det) kjøp viagra Ikke prøvd, men du kan eksperimentere med... Hvordan føler du deg, følsomhet etter konsumere piller?.

Hematopoiesis.info

Clinical Applications of Blood-Derived
and Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for
Nonmalignant Diseases
Richard K. Burt, MD
Context Stem cell therapy is rapidly developing and has generated excitement and promise
as well as confusion and at times contradictory results in the lay and scientific literature.
Many types of stem cells show great promise, but clinical application has lagged due toethical concerns or difficulties in harvesting or safely and efficiently expanding sufficient quantities. In contrast, clinical indications for blood-derived (from peripheral or umbilical cord blood) and bone marrow–derived stem cells, which can be easily and safely harvested,are rapidly increasing.
Objective To summarize new, nonmalignant, nonhematologic clinical indications for
use of blood- and bone marrow–derived stem cells.
Evidence Acquisition Search of multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE,
Science Citation Index), US Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Drug Site, and NationalInstitutes of Health Web site to identify studies published from January 1997 to Decem- STEMCELLSAREUNDIFFERENTI- ber2007onuseofhematopoieticstemcells(HSCs)inautoimmune,cardiac,orvascular diseases. The search was augmented by hand searching of reference lists in clinical trials, review articles, proceedings booklets, FDA reports, and contact with study authors and de-vice and pharmaceutical companies.
Evidence Synthesis Of 926 reports identified, 323 were examined for feasibility and
terms, there are 2 types of stem cells, em- toxicity, including those with small numbers of patients, interim or substudy reports, andreports on multiple diseases, treatment of relapse, toxicity, mechanism of action, or stem bryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.
cell mobilization. Another 69 were evaluated for outcomes. For autoimmune diseases, 26 reports representing 854 patients reported treatment-related mortality of less than 1% lated from a 50- to 150-cell, 4- to 5-day- (2/220 patients) for nonmyeloablative, less than 2% (3/197) for dose-reduced myeloablative, and 13% (13/100) for intense myeloablative regimens, ie, those including total body ir- onic stem cells generate every specialized radiation or high-dose busulfan. While all trials performed during the inflammatory stage of autoimmune disease suggested that transplantation of HSCs may have a potent disease- pable of indefinite ex vivo proliferation, remitting effect, remission duration remains unclear, and no randomized trials have been exist only transiently in vivo (during em- published. For reports involving cardiovascular diseases, including 17 reports involving 1002 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 16 involving 493 patients with chronic coronaryartery disease, and 3 meta-analyses, the evidence suggests that stem cell transplantation performed in patients with coronary artery disease may contribute to modest improvement Conclusions Stem cells harvested from blood or marrow, whether administered as
purified HSCs or mesenchymal stem cells or as an unmanipulated or unpurified prod- tionally thought to be restricted in their uct can, under appropriate conditions in select patients, provide disease-ameliorating differentiation to cell lineages of the or- effects in some autoimmune diseases and cardiovascular disorders. Clinical trials are gan system in which they are located.
needed to determine the most appropriate cell type, dose, method, timing of delivery, and adverse effects of adult HSCs for these and other nonmalignant disorders.
with adult stem cells, are currently dif- Author Affiliations are listed at the end of this article.
Corresponding Author: Richard K. Burt, MD, Divi-
sion of Immunotherapy, Department of Medicine,Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medi- cine, 750 N Lake Shore Dr, Room 649, Chicago, IL 2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 925
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES fected. In contrast, adult stem cells nor- ing of reference lists in clinical trials, specific differentiation patterns, fulfill- pirate are cultured in plastic flasks, he- aging, or damaged tissues. For these rea- cluded in the search: stem cell transplan- testinal tract, heart, brain), the major- tation, bone marrow transplantation, pe- ripheral blood stem cell transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mal cells and mesenchymal stem cells.
mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, circulating progenitor cell, autoimmune to contribute to the structural matrix of diseases, multiple sclerosis, systemic scle- rosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, poiesis; the latter describes the ability of Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ju- venile idiopathic arthritis, vasculitis, Weg- ner’s, Sjo¨gren’s, Behcet’s, celiac disease, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, relaps- ing polychondritis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthe- nia gravis, diabetes, coronary artery dis- ease, myocardial infarction, myocardial is- rify for HSCs, assays for their detection peripheral vascular disease. Animal data, etic stem cell assays may be divided into population assays.1 The gold standard for EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS
HSCs is the ability to repopulate all he- J.A.R.) judged eligibility of studies inde- tialsearchidentified926articles(FIGURE).
ents reconstitutes hematopoiesis with re- sultant normal life spans. Serial in vivo EVIDENCE ACQUISITION
sential functional criteria of HSCs: pro- stem cell collection, or toxicity reports, liferation to replenish the stem cell com- ity are lifelong repopulating stem cells. A 926 JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 (Reprinted)
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES Figure. Flow of Eligible Studies of Stem Cell Transplantation for Nonmalignant
on autoimmune disorders [Ն4 patients]that reported on a single autoimmune 926 Articles identified in initial search disease and were not subsequently re-ported as part of a later study or analy- patients with acute myocardial infarc-tion, 493 patients with chronic myocar- dial ischemia, and 169 with peripheralvascular disease.
Stem Cells
for Autoimmune Diseases
55 Interim reports11 Multiple diseases in one report (HSCT) for treatment of patients with se- late 1990s. These clinical trials were basedonextensivepreclinicalanimaltransplan- mune diseases are environmentally in-duced by vaccination with self-peptides,adjuvant, or both and may be cured by a 26 Reports (854 patients) on treatment of 43 Reports on treatment of vascular disease of self- or auto-reactive lymphocytes (ie,lymphoablation). Other animal autoim- aAssessed both acute infarction and chronic ischemia; this study is also included in the 3 meta-analyses shown above.
mune disorders occur spontaneouslywithout intentional or obvious environ- row failure if HSCs are not reinfused.
tion, if any, to duration of clinical remis- eases, ie, for lymphoablation without ir- cells. Following a nonmyeloablative regi- rather as changing the natural history of disease. This second point should be con- reported rates of up to 23%.11 Treatment- tion in justifying mortality end points in related mortality, although generally im- myeloablative regimens11,14-37 (TABLE 1).
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 927
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES Table 1. Treatment-Related Mortality Following Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Autoimmune Diseasesa
Multicenter
Treatment-Related
or Single
Deaths/Patients,
Response
Nonmyeloablative Regimenb
Complete remission (n = 3); partial response (n = 1) 50% ACR criteria 50 or greater response at 12 mo Low-Intensity Myeloablative Regimeng
High-Intensity Myeloablative Regimeni
Mixed Myeloablative and Nonmyeloablative Regimens
Complete remission (n = 6); partial response (n = 5) Complete remission or partial response in 92% Abbreviations: ACR, American College of Rheumatology; CIDP, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; MS, multiple sclerosis; NA, not available; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.
a Excludes reports having Ͻ4 patients, reports with multiple autoimmune diseases, and results included in interim or substudy analyses.
b Nonmyeloablative regimens include combinations of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, or antilymphocyte antibodies.
c R. K. Burt, Y. Loh, B. Cohen, et al., Autologous non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis reverses neurologic disability, d R. M. Craig, Y. Oyama, K. Quigley, et al, Autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory Crohn disease 2001-2007, unpublished e Progression-, relapse-, and mortality-free survival.
f Two patients received a myeloablative regimen.
g Low-intensity myeloablative regimens may include nonmyeloablative agents as well as either BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) or melphalan (Յ140 mg/m2).
h Not categorized as secondary or primary progressive.
i High-intensity myeloablative regimens may include nonmyeloablative agents as well as either total body irradiation (Ն8 Gy) or full-dose busulfan.
j Does not include 2 cases of late radiation-induced myelodysplastic syndrome/leukemia.
k One case of late radiation-induced myelodysplastic syndrome/leukemia included in mortality.
l Includes primary and secondary progressive, relapsing progressive, and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
m Transplant-related mortality lower with less intense regimens.
928 JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 (Reprinted)
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES of clinical benefit in patients with pro- mation was abrogated, while loss of brain ease, resulted in marked serologic, clini- agents used in the conditioning regimen.
sion for 5 years.19 In comparison, a mul- Learning from these studies, a trial of au- free survival, but treatment-related mor- sion, and two-thirds of patients had sig- after transplantation in patients receiv- flexibility and quality of life, and rever- matopoietic stem cell transplantation for sal of pulmonary alveolitis.15,18 Two stud- relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis re- men, termed “ rituximab sandwich,” en- tails 1 dose of rituximab given before and of treatment-related mortality,15,18 respec- date, this regimen has been well tolerated.
sclerosis—ie, treat early while the disease tive regimens with low risk of treatment- increased intensity of the transplant regi- eloablative regimen and selecting patients plete loss of insulin-producing islet cells.
tients with secondary progressive and, to sulted in insulin-free remission of type 1 a lesser extent, primary progressive dis- diabetes in 13 of 15 patients, and some pa- ease. In this subset of patients, intense treated with different conditioning regi- cose levels (as determined by levels of gly- other therapy for more than 3 years at last progressive neurologic disability.27,29-31 clear if, at some point in dose intensity, tensity. It is also unclear if any regimen 2008).20,21 For rheumatoid arthritis, the 2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 929
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES Table 2. Ongoing Randomized Controlled Trials of Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell
URL (Trial Identifier)
Nonmyeloablative Regimen
domized, noncontrolled trials.55,56 In non- Myeloablative Regimen
Stem Cells for Vascular Disease
Abbreviations: ASSIST, American Scleroderma Stem Cell vs Immune Suppression Trial; ASTIL, Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Lupus; ASTIMS, Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Multiple Sclerosis;ASTIS, Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation International Scleroderma; KISS, Crohns Immune Suppression vs Stem Cells; MIST, Multiple Sclerosis International Stem Cell Transplant; SCOT, Scleroderma Cyclophosphamide Or Trans-plantation; URL, uniform resource locator.
nonhematopoietic organ function afterinjection of unmanipulated marrow, pe-ripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood vascular Behçet disease,16 neurovascular Sjo¨gren syndrome,16 Takyasu arteritis,47 at least 2 years after transplantation42; results are not yet reported, several ran- lative regimens (TABLE 2).
eases.48-52 Because it changes genetic pre- is considered more likely to cure autoim- ease, is not an acceptable risk following tive or low-intensity myeloablative regi- human data48,49,53 suggest that an alloge- retinitis and optic neuritis (Y. Oyama, R.
cal paracrine or cell-help-cell effect.
K. Burt, C. Thirkill, E. Hanna, K. Merril, eloablative hematopoietic stem cell trans- disease,22 polyarteritis nodosa,32 neuro- 930 JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 (Reprinted)
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES express endothelial characteristics. This mixture of cells, whether unselected, en- riched for a stem cell marker, or manipu- lated in culture and from diverse sources, can be used in intracoronary or intramyo- Acute Myocardial Infarction. In pa-
tricular contractility in the cell treat- of the infarct-related artery with or with- out stent placement plus anticoagulation, later by repeat percutaneous coronary in- stem cells57-73 (TABLE 3). The infused stem
tracoronary transplantation.60 In contrast provements in infarct size, left ventricu- studies, the BOOST trial reported that the lating progenitor cells (CPCs), which are peripheral blood cells cultured ex vivo to Table 3. Clinical Trials of Stem Cell Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction With Ն30 Patients
LVEF Outcome,
Days After
Stem Cell
Treatment/Control;
Patients
Infusion
increased infarct-relatedartery restenosis Abbreviations: ASTAMI, Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction; BOOST, Bone Marrow Transfer to Enhance ST Elevation Infarct Regeneration Trial; CPC, circulating progenitor cell; G-CSF, granulocyte colony–stimulating factor; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MAGIC, Myocardial Regeneration and Angiogenesis in MyocardialInfarction With G-CSF and Intracoronary Stem Cell Infusion; MAGIC Cell-3-DES, MAGIC-3-Drug Eluting Stents; MI, myocardial infarction; NA, not available; NS, not significant; REPAIR-AMI,Reinfusion of Enriched Progenitor Cells and Infarct Remodeling in Acute Myocardial Infarction; TOPCARE-AMI, Transplantation of Progenitor Cells and Regeneration Enhancement inAcute Myocardial Infarction.
a Study assessed both acute and old MI.
c Randomized to high-dose, low-dose, or no cells.
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 931
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES farction) trial found no significant ben- eficial effects from intracoronary trans- Chronic Coronary Artery Disease.
In chronic ischemic cardiac disease or old sponse to hypoxic stress that halts the en- tion, and global LVEF, and to relieve an- group.64,79 Left ventricular ejection frac- Peripheral Vascular Disease. Tis-
there was an increase in restenosis in pa- tion. Several reports have suggested that pass graft surgery84-99 (TABLE 4). Erbs et
al84 treated chronic (Ͼ30-day) total coro- derived stem cells into the affected limb intracoronary CPC infusion or no cells.
nary Artery Disease) trial, Strauer et al85 needle into multiple sites 1 to 3 cm apart dure has generally been performed safely, 932 JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 (Reprinted)
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES obtained by intra-arterial injection of cells tration (ie, puncturing the tibia) to al- a “cure,” appears to be a potentially useful clinical approach available to ame- injection of progenitor cells remains un- blative regimens are used, indicating the tients with thromboangiitis obliterans re- sponded to therapy.103,104 In contrast, de- prove to be the elusive “cure” for some au- esis, or release factors such as nitric ox- ide that augment local endothelial cell at- patients with bilateral (n=22) or unilat- graft, and whether an allogeneic graft-vs- therapy have been used to facilitate tis- sue repair following ischemic injury.
est benefit with little toxicity from stem Table 4. Clinical Trials of Stem Cell Therapy for Chronic Myocardial Ischemia and/or Heart Failure With Ն20 Patients
No. of Follow-
Stem Cell
Stem Cell
Trial Type/Name
Patients up, mo
LVEF Outcome; Comment
Improved mortality in high-order CFUs injected Improved LVEF and left ventricular volumes Improved LVEF, CCS angina score, perfusion Abbreviations: CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CCS, Canadian Cardiovascular Society; CFU, colony-forming unit; CHF, congestive heart failure; CPC, circulating progenitor cell; IACT, Intracoronary Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NS, not significant; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; NYHA, New York Heart Association; TOPCARE-CHD, Transplantation of Progenitor Cells and Recovery of Left Ventricular Function in Patients With ChronicIschemic Heart Disease.
a Control group refused treatment with bone marrow-derived cells.
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 933
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stro- 25. Capello E, Saccardi R, Murialdo A, et al; Italian
mal cells: the International Society for Cellular Therapy GITMO-Neuro Intergroup on ASCT for Multiple position statement. Cytotherapy. 2006;8(4):315- Sclerosis. Intense immunosuppression followed by nisms of this effect remain undefined and autologous stem cell transplantation in severe mul- 9. Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, et al. Multi-
tiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2005;26(suppl 4):S200- lineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science. 1999;284(5411):143-147.
26. Carreras E, Saiz A, Marı´n P, et al. CD34ϩ se-
tor cell–derived vasculogenesis and lo- 10. Gratwohl A, Passweg J, Bocelli-Tyndall C, et al;
lected autologous peripheral blood stem cell trans- Autoimmune Diseases Working Party of the Euro- plantation for multiple sclerosis: report of toxicity and cal paracrine effects. Clinical trials are pean Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation treatment results at one year of follow-up in 15 (EBMT). Autologous hematopoietic stem cell trans- patients. Haematologica. 2003;88(3):306-314.
plantation for autoimmune diseases. Bone Marrow 27. Fassas A, Passweg JR, Anagnostopoulos A, et al;
Transplant. 2005;35(9):869-879.
Autoimmune Disease Working Party of the EBMT (Eu- of delivery for use of HSCs in cardiovas- 11. Nash RA, McSweeney PA, Crofford LJ, et al. High-
ropean Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation).
cular disease. Similar trials are also being dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous he- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple scle- matopoietic cell transplantation for severe systemic scle- rosis: a retrospective multicenter study [published cor- rosis: long-term follow-up of the US multicenter pilot rection appears in J Neurol. 2002;249(11)1619].
ated in liver disease,109-111 cerebrovascu- study. Blood. 2007;110(4):1388-1396.
J Neurol. 2002;249(8):1088-1097.
12. Burt RK, Marmont A, Oyama Y, et al. Random-
28. Koza´k T, Havrdova´ E, Pit’ha J, et al. High-dose
lar disease, and spinal cord injury.
ized controlled trials of autologous hematopoietic stem immunosuppressive therapy with PBPC support in the Author Affiliations: Divisions of Immunotherapy (Drs
cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases: the evo- treatment of poor risk multiple sclerosis. Bone Mar- Burt, Craig, and Wen), Cardiology (Drs Beohar and lution from myeloablative to lymphoablative trans- row Transplant. 2000;25(5):525-531.
Rapp), Rheumatology (Dr Barr), and Gastroenterol- plant regimens. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(12):3750- 29. Burt RK, Cohen BA, Russell E, et al. Hematopoi-
ogy (Dr Craig), Department of Medicine; Division of etic stem cell transplantation for progressive multiple Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery (Dr Pearce); 13. Statkute L, Verda L, Oyama Y, et al. Mobiliza-
sclerosis: failure of a total body irradiation-based con- and Department of Neurology (Dr Kessler), North- tion, harvesting and selection of peripheral blood stem ditioning regimen to prevent disease progression in western University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chi- cells in patients with autoimmune diseases undergo- patients with high disability scores. Blood. 2003; cago, Illinois; and Department of Hematology, Sin- ing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
gapore General Hospital, Singapore (Dr Loh).
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39(6):317-329.
30. Nash RA, Bowen JD, McSweeney PA, et al. High-
Author Contributions: Dr Burt had full access to all of
14. Samijn JP, te Boekhorst PA, Mondria T, et al. In-
dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous pe- the data in the study and takes responsibility for the in- tense T cell depletion followed by autologous bone ripheral blood stem cell transplantation for severe mul- tegrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
marrow transplantation for severe multiple sclerosis.
tiple sclerosis. Blood. 2003;102(7):2364-2372.
Study concept and design: Burt, Beohar.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(1):46-50.
31. Openshaw H, Lund BT, Kashyap A, et al. Periph-
Acquisition of data: Burt, Loh, Barr, Wen, Rapp.
15. Oyama Y, Barr WG, Statkute L, et al. Autolo-
eral blood stem cell transplantation in multiple scle- Analysis and interpretation of data: Burt, Pearce, gous non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell trans- rosis with busulfan and cyclophosphamide condition- plantation in patients with systemic sclerosis. Bone Mar- ing: report of toxicity and immunological monitoring.
Drafting of the manuscript: Burt, Beohar.
row Transplant. 2007;40(6):549-555.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2000;6(5A):563- Critical revision of the manuscript for important in- 16. Statkute L, Oyama Y, Barr WG, et al. Autolo-
tellectual content: Burt, Loh, Pearce, Beohar, Barr, gous non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell trans- 32. Daikeler T, Ko¨tter I, Bocelli Tyndall C, et al; EBMT
plantation for refractory systemic vasculitis [pub- Autoimmune Diseases Working Party. Haematopoi- Administrative, technical, or material support: Burt, lished online ahead of print October 18, 2007]. Ann etic stem cell transplantation for vasculitis including Rheum Dis. doi:10.1136/ard.2007.070227.
Behcet’s disease and polychondritis: a retrospective Financial Disclosures: None reported.
17. Voltarelli JC, Couri CE, Stracieri AB, et al. Autolo-
analysis of patients recorded in the European Bone Mar- Additional Contributions: We thank Donald Orlic, PhD
gous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell trans- row Transplantation and European League Against (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National In- plantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Rheumatism databases and a review of the literature.
stitutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland), and Douglas JAMA. 2007;297(14):1568-1576.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66(2):202-207.
Losordo, MD (Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Insti- 18. Vonk MC, Marjanovic Z, van den Hoogen FH, et al.
33. Saccardi R, Kozak T, Bocelli-Tyndall C, et al; Au-
tute, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois), for criti- Long-term follow-up results after autologous haema- toimmune Diseases Working Party of EBMT. Autolo- cal review of the manuscript. Neither of these individu- topoietic stem cell transplantation for severe sys- gous stem cell transplantation for progressive mul- als received extra compensation for their contributions.
temic sclerosis [published online ahead of print May tiple sclerosis: update of the European Group for Blood 25, 2007]. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67(1):98-104.
and Marrow Transplantation autoimmune diseases working party database. Mult Scler. 2006;12(6): REFERENCES
19. Burt RK, Traynor A, Statkute L, et al. Nonmyeloa-
1. van Os R, Kamminga LM, de Haan G. Stem cell
blative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sys- 34. De Kleer IM, Brinkman DM, Ferster A, et al. Au-
assays: something old, something new, something temic lupus erythematosus. JAMA. 2006;295(5): tologous stem cell transplantation for refractory ju- borrowed. Stem Cells. 2004;22(7):1181-1190.
venile idiopathic arthritis: analysis of clinical effects, 2. Jordan CT, Lemischka IR. Clonal and systemic analy-
20. Oyama Y, Craig RM, Traynor AE, et al. Autolo-
mortality, and transplant related morbidity. Ann Rheum sis of long-term hematopoiesis in the mouse. Genes gous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pa- tients with refractory Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology.
35. Farge D, Passweg J, van Laar JM, et al. Autolo-
3. Morrison SJ, Uchida N, Weissman IL. The biology
gous stem cell transplantation in the treatment of sys- of hematopoietic stem cells. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol.
21. Snowden JA, Passweg J, Moore JJ, et al. Autolo-
temic sclerosis: report from the EBMT/EULAR registry.
gous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63(8):974-981.
4. Berenson RJ, Andrews RG, Bensinger WI, et al. An-
rheumatoid arthritis: a report from the EBMT and 36. Jayne D, Passweg J, Marmont A, et al; European
tigen CD34ϩ marrow cells engraft lethally irradiated ABMTR. J Rheumatol. 2004;31(3):482-488.
Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Euro- baboons. J Clin Invest. 1988;81(3):951-955.
22. Al-toma A, Visser OJ, van Roessel HM, et al. Au-
pean League Against Rheumatism Registry. Autolo- 5. Civin CI, Trischmann T, Kadan NS, et al. Highly pu-
tologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in re- gous stem cell transplantation for systemic lupus rified CD34-positive cells reconstitute hematopoiesis.
fractory celiac disease with aberrant T cells. Blood.
erythematosus. Lupus. 2004;13(3):168-176.
J Clin Oncol. 1996;14(8):2224-2233.
37. Binks M, Passweg JR, Furst D, et al. Phase I/II trial
6. Gallacher L, Murdoch B, Wu DM, Karanu FN, Kee-
23. Ni XS, Ouyang J, Zhu WH, Wang C, Chen B. Au-
of autologous stem cell transplantation in systemic scle- ney M, Bhatia M. Isolation and characterization of hu- tologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for rosis: procedure related mortality and impact on skin man CD34(-)Lin(-) and CD34(ϩ)Lin(-) hematopoi- progressive multiple sclerosis: report of efficacy and disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60(6):577-584.
etic stem cells using cell surface markers AC133 and safety at three yr of follow up in 21 patients. Clin 38. Montoto S, Canals C, Rohatiner AZ, et al; EBMT
CD7. Blood. 2000;95(9):2813-2820.
Transplant. 2006;20(4):485-489.
Lymphoma Working Party. Long-term follow-up of 7. Friedenstein AJ, Chailakhjan RK, Lalykina KS. The
24. Xu J, Ji BX, Su L, Dong HQ, Sun XJ, Liu CY. Clini-
high-dose treatment with autologous haematopoi- development of fibroblast colonies in monolayer cul- cal outcomes after autologous haematopoietic stem etic progenitor cell support in 693 patients with fol- tures of guinea-pig bone marrow and spleen cells. Cell cell transplantation in patients with progressive mul- licular lymphoma: an EBMT registry study [published Tissue Kinet. 1970;3(4):393-403.
tiple sclerosis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119(22): online ahead of print July 19, 2007]. Leukemia. 2007; 8. Dominici M, Le Blanc K, Mueller I, et al. Minimal
21(11):2324-2331. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2404850.
934 JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 (Reprinted)
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES 39. Brown JR, Feng Y, Gribben JG, et al. Long-term
resistant graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation.
70. Li ZQ, Zhang M, Jing YZ, et al. The clinical study
survival after autologous bone marrow transplanta- of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplanta- tion for follicular lymphoma in first remission. Biol Blood 56. Fang B, Song YP, Liao LM, Han Q, Zhao RC. Treat-
tion by intracoronary infusion in patients with acute Marrow Transplant. 2007;13(9):1057-1065.
ment of severe therapy-resistant acute graft-versus- myocardial infarction (AMI). Int J Cardiol. 2007; 40. Loh Y, Oyama Y, Statkute L, et al. Development
host disease with human adipose tissue-derived mes- of a secondary autoimmune disorder after hemato- enchymal stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006; 71. Meluzin J, Mayer J, Groch L, et al. Autologous
poietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune dis- transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells in eases: role of conditioning regimen used. Blood. 2007; 57. Scha¨chinger V, Assmus B, Britten MB, et al. Trans-
patients with acute myocardial infarction: the effect plantation of progenitor cells and regeneration en- of the dose of transplanted cells on myocardial function.
41. Rocca MA, Mondria T, Valsasina P, et al. A three-
hancement in acute myocardial infarction: final one- Am Heart J. 2006;152(5):975.e9-15.
year study of brain atrophy after autologous hema- year results of the TOPCARE-AMI Trial. J Am Coll 72. Tatsumi T, Ashihara E, Yasui T, et al. Intracoro-
topoietic stem cell transplantation in rapidly evolving Cardiol. 2004;44(8):1690-1699.
nary transplantation of non-expanded peripheral secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. AJNR Am J 58. Scha¨chinger V, Erbs S, Elsasser A, et al. Intracoro-
blood-derived mononuclear cells promotes improve- Neuroradiol. 2007;28(9):1659-1661.
nary bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in acute ment of cardiac function in patients with acute myo- 42. Verburg RJ, Flierman R, Sont JK, et al. Outcome
myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(12): cardial infarction. Circ J. 2007;71(8):1199-1207.
of intensive immunosuppression and autologous stem 73. Choi JH, Choi J, Lee WS, et al. Lack of additional
cell transplantation in patients with severe rheuma- 59. Scha¨chinger V, Erbs S, Elsa¨sser A, et al; REPAIR-AMI
benefit of intracoronary transplantation of autolo- toid arthritis is associated with the composition of sy- Investigators. Improved clinical outcome after intra- gous peripheral blood stem cell in patients with acute novial T cell infiltration. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64 coronary administration of bone-marrow-derived pro- myocardial infarction. Circ J. 2007;71(4):486-494.
genitor cells in acute myocardial infarction: final 1-year 74. Assmus B, Schachinger V, Teupe C, et al. Trans-
43. Teng YK, Verburg RJ, Sont JK, van den Hout WB,
results of the REPAIR-AMI trial. Eur Heart J. 2006; plantation of Progenitor Cells and Regeneration En- Breedveld FC, van Laar JM. Long-term followup of h a n c e m e n t i n A c u t e M y o c a r d i a l I n f a r c t i o n health status in patients with severe rheumatoid ar- 60. Wollert KC, Meyer GP, Lotz J, et al. Intracoro-
(TOPCARE-AMI). Circulation. 2002;106(24):3009- thritis after high-dose chemotherapy followed by au- nary autologous bone-marrow cell transfer after myo- tologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ar- cardial infarction: the BOOST randomised controlled 75. Britten MB, Abolmaali ND, Assmus B, et al. In-
thritis Rheum. 2005;52(8):2272-2276.
clinical trial. Lancet. 2004;364(9429):141-148.
farct remodeling after intracoronary progenitor cell 44. Oyama Y, Sufit R, Loh Y, et al. Autologous non-
61. Meyer GP, Wollert KC, Lotz J, et al. Intracoro-
treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarc- myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplanta- nary bone marrow cell transfer after myocardial in- tion (TOPCARE-AMI): mechanistic insights from se- tion for refractory CIDP. Neurology. 2007;69(18): farction: eighteen months’ follow-up data from the rial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
randomized, controlled BOOST (BOne marrOw trans- Circulation. 2003;108(18):2212-2218.
45. Rosen O, Thiel A, Massenkeil G, et al. Autolo-
fer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration) trial.
76. Do¨bert N, Britten M, Assmus B, et al. Transplan-
gous stem-cell transplantation in refractory autoim- Circulation. 2006;113(10):1287-1294.
tation of progenitor cells after reperfused acute myo- mune diseases after in vivo immunoablation and ex 62. Schaefer A, Meyer GP, Fuchs M, et al. Impact of
cardial infarction: evaluation of perfusion and myo- vivo depletion of mononuclear cells. Arthritis Res. 2000; intracoronary bone marrow cell transfer on diastolic cardial viability with FDG-PET and thallium SPECT. Eur function in patients after acute myocardial infarc- J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004;31(8):1146-1151.
46. Oryoji K, Himeji D, Nagafuji K, et al. Successful
tion: results from the BOOST trial. Eur Heart J. 2006; 77. Scha¨chinger V, Assmus B, Honold J, et al. Nor-
treatment of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumo- malization of coronary blood flow in the infarct- nia with autologous peripheral blood stem cell trans- 63. Lunde K, Solheim S, Aakhus S, et al. Intracoro-
related artery after intracoronary progenitor cell plantation in a patient with dermatomyositis. Clin nary injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells in therapy: intracoronary Doppler substudy of the TOP- Rheumatol. 2005;24(6):637-640.
acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2006; CARE-AMI trial. Clin Res Cardiol. 2006;95(1):13- 47. Voltarelli JC, Oliveira MC, Stracieri AB, et al. Hae-
matopoietic stem cell transplantation for refractory 64. Kang HJ, Kim HS, Koo BK, et al. Intracoronary in-
78. Erbs S, Linke A, Scha¨chinger V, et al. Restoration
Takayasu’s arteritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004; fusion of the mobilized peripheral blood stem cell by of microvascular function in the infarct-related artery G-CSF is better than mobilization alone by G-CSF for by intracoronary transplantation of bone marrow pro- 48. Burt RK, Oyama Y, Verda L, et al. Induction of
improvement of cardiac function and remodeling: genitor cells in patients with acute myocardial infarc- remission of severe and refractory rheumatoid arthri- 2-year follow-up results of the Myocardial Regenera- tion: the Doppler substudy of the Reinfusion of En- tis by allogeneic mixed chimerism. Arthritis Rheum.
tion and Angiogenesis in Myocardial Infarction with riched Progenitor Cells and Infarct Remodeling in Acute G-CSF and Intra-Coronary Stem Cell Infusion (MAGIC Myocardial Infarction (REPAIR-AMI) trial. Circulation.
49. Loh Y, Oyama Y, Statkute L, et al. Non-
Cell) 1 trial. Am Heart J. 2007;153(2):237.e1-8.
myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell trans- 65. Kang HJ, Lee HY, Na SH, et al. Differential effect
79. Kang HJ, Kim HS, Zhang SY, et al. Effects of in-
plantation for severe systemic sclerosis: graft-versus- of intracoronary infusion of mobilized peripheral blood tracoronary infusion of peripheral blood stem-cells mo- autoimmunity without graft-versus-host disease? stem cells by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on bilised with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on [published online ahead of print February 19, 2007].
left ventricular function and remodeling in patients with left ventricular systolic function and restenosis after Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39(7):435-437.
acute myocardial infarction versus old myocardial in- coronary stenting in myocardial infarction: the MAGIC farction: the MAGIC Cell-3-DES randomized, con- cell randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2004;363(9411): 50. Nash RA, McSweeney PA, Nelson JL, et al. Allo-
trolled trial. Circulation. 2006;114(1)(suppl):I145- geneic marrow transplantation in patients with se- 80. Grothues F, Smith GC, Moon JC, et al. Compari-
vere systemic sclerosis: resolution of dermal fibrosis.
66. Chen SL, Fang WW, Ye F, et al. Effect on left ven-
son of interstudy reproducibility of cardiovascular mag- Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(6):1982-1986.
tricular function of intracoronary transplantation of au- netic resonance with two-dimensional echocardiog- 51. Marmont AM, Gualandi F, Piaggio G, et al. Al-
tologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell in pa- raphy in normal subjects and in patients with heart logeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for re- tients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol.
failure or left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Cardiol.
fractory Behcet’s disease with severe CNS involvement.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006;37(11):1061-1063.
67. Janssens S, Dubois C, Bogaert J, et al. Autolo-
81. Abdel-Latif A, Bolli R, Tleyjeh IM, et al. Adult bone
52. Marmont AM, Gualandi F, Van Lint MT, Baciga-
gous bone marrow-derived stem-cell transfer in pa- marrow-derived cells for cardiac repair: a systematic lupo A. Refractory Evans’ syndrome treated with al- tients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarc- review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007; logeneic SCT followed by DLI: demonstration of a graft- tion: double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet.
versus-autoimmunity effect. Bone Marrow Transplant.
82. Lipinski MJ, Biondi-Zoccai GG, Abbate A, et al.
68. Bartunek J, Vanderheyden M, Vandekerckhove
Impact of intracoronary cell therapy on left ventricu- 53. Verda L, An Kim D, Ikehara S, et al. Hematopoi-
B, et al. Intracoronary injection of CD133-positive en- lar function in the setting of acute myocardial infarc- etic mixed chimerism derived from allogeneic embry- riched bone marrow progenitor cells promotes car- tion: a collaborative systematic review and meta- onic stem cells prevents autoimmune diabetes melli- diac recovery after recent myocardial infarction: fea- analysis of controlled clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol.
tus in nod mice [published online ahead of print sibility and safety. Circulation. 2005;112(9)(suppl): November 1, 2007]. Stem Cells. 2007;0:2006-0262v1.
83. Hristov M, Heussen N, Schober A, Weber C. In-
54. Uccelli A, Pistoia V, Moretta L. Mesenchymal stem
69. Mansour S, Vanderheyden M, De Bruyne B, et al.
tracoronary infusion of autologous bone marrow cells cells: a new strategy for immunosuppression? Trends Intracoronary delivery of hematopoietic bone mar- and left ventricular function after acute myocardial in- row stem cells and luminal loss of the infarct-related farction: a meta-analysis. J Cell Mol Med. 2006; 55. Ringde´n O, Uzunel M, Rasmusson I, et al. Mes-
artery in patients with recent myocardial infarction.
enchymal stem cells for treatment of therapy- J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(8):1727-1730.
84. Erbs S, Linke A, Adams V, et al. Transplantation
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 935
BLOOD- AND MARROW-DERIVED STEM CELLS FOR NONMALIGNANT DISEASES of blood-derived progenitor cells after recanalization tained effect of autologous bone marrow mono- 102. Bartsch T, Brehm M, Zeus T, Ko¨gler G, Wernet
of chronic coronary artery occlusion: first random- nuclear cell injection in patients with refractory an- P, Strauer BE. Transplantation of autologous mono- ized and placebo-controlled study. Circ Res. 2005; gina pectoris and chronic myocardial ischemia: twelve- nuclear bone marrow stem cells in patients with pe- month follow-up results. Am Heart J. 2006;152(4): ripheral arterial disease (the TAM-PAD study). Clin Res 85. Strauer BE, Brehm M, Zeus T, et al. Regenera-
Cardiol. 2007;96(12):891-899.
tion of human infarcted heart muscle by intracoro- 94. Gao LR, Wang ZG, Zhu ZM, et al. Effect of in-
103. Kim DI, Kim MJ, Joh JH, et al. Angiogenesis fa-
nary autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in tracoronary transplantation of autologous bone mar- cilitated by autologous whole bone marrow stem cell chronic coronary artery disease: the IACT Study. J Am row-derived mononuclear cells on outcomes of pa- transplantation for Buerger’s disease. Stem Cells. 2006; Coll Cardiol. 2005;46(9):1651-1658.
tients with refractory chronic heart failure secondary 86. Assmus B, Honold J, Schachinger V, et al. Trans-
to ischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2006; 104. Durdu S, Akar AR, Arat M, Sancak T, Eren NT,
coronary transplantation of progenitor cells after myo- Ozyurda U. Autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(12):1222- 95. Chen S, Liu Z, Tian N, et al. Intracoronary trans-
cell implantation for patients with Rutherford grade plantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchy- II-III thromboangiitis obliterans. J Vasc Surg. 2006; 87. Assmus B, Fischer-Rasokat U, Honold J, et al; TOP-
mal stem cells for ischemic cardiomyopathy due to iso- CARE-CHD Registry. Transcoronary transplantation of lated chronic occluded left anterior descending artery.
105. Kawamura A, Horie T, Tsuda I, et al. Preven-
functionally competent BMCs is associated with a de- J Invasive Cardiol. 2006;18(11):552-556.
tion of limb amputation in patients with limbs ulcers crease in natriuretic peptide serum levels and im- 96. Manginas A, Goussetis E, Koutelou M, et al. Pi-
by autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell proved survival of patients with chronic postinfarc- lot study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of in- implantation. Ther Apher Dial. 2005;9(1):59-63.
tion heart failure: results of the TOPCARE-CHD tracoronary CD133(ϩ) and CD133(-) CD34(ϩ) cell 106. Tateishi-Yuyama E, Matsubara H, Murohara T,
Registry. Circ Res. 2007;100(8):1234-1241.
therapy in patients with nonviable anterior myocar- et al. Therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with limb 88. Perin EC, Dohmann HF, Borojevic R, et al. Im-
dial infarction. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2007; ischaemia by autologous transplantation of bone- proved exercise capacity and ischemia 6 and 12 months marrow cells: a pilot study and a randomised con- after transendocardial injection of autologous bone mar- 97. Losordo DW, Schatz RA, White CJ, et al. Intra-
trolled trial. Lancet. 2002;360(9331):427-435.
row mononuclear cells for ischemic cardiomyopathy.
myocardial transplantation of autologous CD34ϩ stem 107. Saigawa T, Kato K, Ozawa T, et al. Clinical ap-
Circulation. 2004;110(11)(suppl 1):II213-II218.
cells for intractable angina: a phase I/IIa double- plication of bone marrow implantation in patients with 89. Perin EC, Dohmann HF, Borojevic R, et al. Transen-
blind, randomized controlled trial. Circulation. 2007; arteriosclerosis obliterans, and the association be- docardial, autologous bone marrow cell transplanta- tween efficacy and the number of implanted bone mar- tion for severe, chronic ischemic heart failure.
98. Mocini D, Staibano M, Mele L, et al. Autologous
row cells. Circ J. 2004;68(12):1189-1193.
Circulation. 2003;107(18):2294-2302.
bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in pa- 108. Ishida A, Ohya Y, Sakuda H, et al. Autologous
90. Patel AN, Geffner L, Vina RF, et al. Surgical treat-
tients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Am peripheral blood mononuclear cell implantation for pa- ment for congestive heart failure with autologous adult Heart J. 2006;151(1):192-197.
tients with peripheral arterial disease improves limb stem cell transplantation: a prospective randomized 99. Stamm C, Kleine HD, Choi YH, et al. Intramyo-
ischemia. Circ J. 2005;69(10):1260-1265.
study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130(6):1631- cardial delivery of CD133ϩ bone marrow cells and 109. Terai S, Ishikawa T, Omori K, et al. Improved liver
coronary artery bypass grafting for chronic ischemic function in patients with liver cirrhosis after autolo- 91. Hendrikx M, Hensen K, Clijsters C, et al. Recov-
heart disease: safety and efficacy studies. J Thorac Car- gous bone marrow cell infusion therapy. Stem Cells.
ery of regional but not global contractile function by diovasc Surg. 2007;133(3):717-725.
the direct intramyocardial autologous bone marrow 100. Miyamoto K, Nishigami K, Nagaya N, et al. Un-
110. Mohamadnejad M, Alimoghaddam K, Mohy-
transplantation: results from a randomized con- blinded pilot study of autologous transplantation of eddin-Bonab M, et al. Phase 1 trial of autologous bone trolled clinical trial. Circulation. 2006;114(1)(suppl): bone marrow mononuclear cells in patients with throm- marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in pa- boangiitis obliterans. Circulation. 2006;114(24): tients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Arch Iran 92. Fuchs S, Kornowski R, Weisz G, et al. Safety and
feasibility of transendocardial autologous bone mar- 101. Lenk K, Adams V, Lurz P, et al. Therapeutical po-
111. am Esch JS II, Knoefel WT, Klein M, et al. Por-
row cell transplantation in patients with advanced heart tential of blood-derived progenitor cells in patients with tal application of autologous CD133ϩ bone marrow disease. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(6):823-829.
peripheral arterial occlusive disease and critical limb cells to the liver: a novel concept to support hepatic 93. Beeres SL, Bax JJ, Dibbets-Schneider P, et al. Sus-
ischaemia. Eur Heart J. 2005;26(18):1903-1909.
regeneration. Stem Cells. 2005;23(4):463-470.
936 JAMA, February 27, 2008—Vol 299, No. 8 (Reprinted)
2008 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Source: http://hematopoiesis.info/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/925.pdf

marylandphysicianscare.com

PREFERRED DRUG LIST UPDATES March 1, 2014 Myfortic brand removed from formulary due to generic availability PrevPac brand removed from formulary due to generic availability February 1, 2014 Mycophenolic acid Generic added to formulary Sumatriptan Nasal Spray QL change from 12/month to 6/month January 1, 2014 Nicotine lozenge OTC: added to formulary QL = 90day supply/year MONT

Los estados intersexuales

LOS ESTADOS INTERSEXUALES Concepto y clasificación El término hermafroditismo proviene del dios griego Hermafrodito, hijo de Hermes y Afrodita, quien se distinguía por reunir, en una misma persona, rasgos y características de ambos sexos. En la actualidad este término ha sido sustituido por el de estados intersexuales y nos aproxima mejor a una de las problemáticas que siempre hem

Copyright © 2010-2014 Drug Shortages pdf