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GP4G STIMULATES HUMAN HAIR FOLLICLE CELLS
METABOLISM AND GROWTH IN ORGAN CULTURE
S. Lachgar, L. Fort-Lacoste, V. Ermosilla, M.Charvéron
European Research Center on skin, IRPF, Hôtel-dieu Saint Jacques Hospital, Toulouse, France
It is well known that metabolic processes are involved in embryonic development, in genome activation and contribute to large increase of protein synthesis and cell division.
The GP4G or diguanosine-tetra-phosphate, is considered as a precursor of the ATP. It is described to activate G protein in skin (Casemelle et al, 1982). The binding activity of
GP4G in brain increases with time of rat nervous system development (Grau et al, 1982). The aim of this study is to check whether this molecule, can stimulate the metabolism of
hair dermal papilla cells in vitro and the hair growth ex vivo. Oxygen consumption is an ubiquitous parameter which can provide valuable information on metabolic mechanism.
We assessed oxygen consumption following treatment with GP4G of cultured human hair follicle dermal papilla (HDPC) cells by using electrochemical technique. We used HDPC
as a useful model for evaluating metabolic activity of GP4G and a-tocopherol nicotinate. Time courses of survival of HDPC were measured colorimetrically by the 3-[4,5-dimethyl-
thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. In this study, we also presented the kinetic aspect of hair shaft elongation ex vivo after hair follicle treatment with GP4G.
Materials and methods
■ Dermal papilla cell culture
■ MTT assay
Dermal papillae were isolated from the lower part of human hair follicles from the
To examine cell viability, an MTT assay was used. Briefly, HDPC were seeded in 96-
occipital region of scalp. Several papillae were placed in 35mm culture dishes contai-
well cell culture plates at a density of 1x106/ml cells in DMEM supplemented with 25
ning 2ml of DMEM supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum, penicillin
µl MTT solution (5mg/ml). 25µl of GP4G at 5% or a-tocopherol nicotinate at
(100units/ml) and streptomycin (100µg/ml). Medium was changed every 3 days. All
100µg/ml was added to each well for 30min and 2hours. Then the MTT solution was
cell cultures were incubated at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere.
removed, and the blue MTT formazan precipitate was dissolved in 100 µl DMSO.
The optical density of samples was measured at 540 nm using an enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay plate reader.
■ Isolated hair follicle culture
Hair follicles were obtained from the occipital region of human hair. After removing
■ Measurment of oxygen consumption
the fat, the hair follicles were placed on 24-well (1 intact follicle/mL/well ) at 37°C
By using Clark oxygen electrodes, the oxygen consumption rates of HDPC was deter-
in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. The hair follicles were maintained
mined. The protocol used for measurement of oxygen consumption is as follow: a)
in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium containing insulin at 10µg/mL, transferrin at
cells were incubated for 24h with DMEM (negative control), DMEM + calf serum
10µg/mL, hydrocortisone at 10µg/mL, 1% of penicillin-streptomycin, fungizone at
(positive control) or GP4G at 1% and 5%. b) cells were collected by centrifugation
2.5µg/mL and 1mM-glutamin. The length of hair follicle was measured immediately
in Hank’s buffer c) oxygen consumption was monitored for 10min at 25°C.
before treatment with GP4G at 5%, α-tocopherol-nicotinate at 100µg/ml or 24µMMinoxidil, and after 3, 6 and 9 days of culture. Images were taken by a digital camera
■ Statistical analysis
coupled to an image analysis software. The percentage of daily hair growth was then
Comparisons were performed by the Student t-test, with the level of significance set
calculated and the activity of treatment was evaluated at each point of hair culture.
at 0.05. Results are reported as means ± SD.
■ Cell viability increases after treatment
After treatment with different concentrations of GP4G (1%, 3% and 5%) or a-toco-pherol nicotinate at 100µg/ml, HDPC were assayed to detect cell viability compared
to control groups. As shown in Figure 1, cell viability increased after 30 min and 2hof treatment with both components. GP4G stimulated cell viability prominently and
consumption in the presence of GP4G.
significantly after 2h culture, the percent of cells metabolising MTT vs control was(+33%,+33% and +36% for GP4G at 1%, 3% and 5% respectively) compared to the
a-tocopherol nicotinate groups (+30%).
Treated cells with GP4Gdisplay more oxygen
2 consumption (nmoles/s/ml)
consumption related to the negative control is about +40% and +100% in the pre-
sence of GP4G at 1% and 5% respectively.
■ Hair growth ex vivo :
Ex vivo, the hair grow faster in the presence of GP4G at 5%.
The mean rate at day 6/day0 was +110% for treated follicles with GP4G vs +17% for
control follicles, +36% for minoxidil group and +20% for the group treated with
Figure 1. MTT analysis of cell metabolism after GP4G or a-tocopherol nicotinate treatment
A small increase of cell viability could be seen after treatment for 30min with GP4G
or a-tocopherol nicotinate and was more prominent after 2h treatment. The error bars
represent the standard deviation. Results of statistical comparisons to the control
group are denoted by asterisk ***(p<0.05).
% of hair growth/Day 0
■ Oxygen consumption
GP4G tested at 1 and 5% increased the oxygen consumption of cultured hair dermal
papilla cells in a dose responsive manner. The oxygen values in GP4G 1% and 5%
treated group were (0.07), (0.1) nmoles/sec/mL respectively. The value of 0.05 was
obtained for the negative control group.
The ability of GP4G to stimulate hair follicle cells metabolism in vitro and the hair growth ex vivo suggests that hair follicles maintained in organ culture are able to respond to this metabolic
Casemelle JC, Costas MJ., Sillero G., Sillero A. Bis-(5’-guanosyl) tetraphosphatse in rat tissue. Biochem.J. 1982-201:405-410
Grau VP, Günter-Sillero MA, Sillero A. Binding of P1,P4 (5’-guanosyl) tetraphosphate to brain.1982;257:11848-11851
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