The variability associated with this second
which did not control for personality, re-ported various outcomes (2– 4 ). Limited
spatial resolution precludes determinationof whether these processes are differential-ly localized among the subnuclei of the
amygdala or adjacent regions involved inprocessing facial expressions (4 ). Never-
theless, the present results demonstrate that
personality traits influence some, but not
other, brain responses to emotionally sa-lient perceptions.
ful, and sad) expressions; (ii) neuroticism
References and Notes
principles of brain-behavior relations by
did not correlate significantly with activa-
1. M. Davis, P. J. Whalen, Mol. Psychiatry 6, 13 (2001).
tion to any expression; and (iii) this corre-
2. J. S. Morris et al., Nature 383, 812 (1996).
across, and individual differences among,
lation was the largest of all possible corre-
3. H. C. Breiter et al., Neuron 17, 875 (1996).
individuals. Both approaches are relevant
lations among the “big 5” major personality
4. P. J. Whalen et al., J. Neurosci. 18, 411 (1998).
5. L. A. Pervin, O. P. John, Eds., Handbook of Personality:
for the study of the amygdala, a critical
traits factors (extraversion, neuroticism,
Theory and Research (Guilford Press, New York, ed. 2,
structure for the processing of emotional
Fig. 1. Amygdala response to emotional faces. (Left) Significant amygdala activation to fearful,
but not happy, faces (left: Ϫ23, Ϫ6, Ϫ18; right: ϩ24, Ϫ7, Ϫ17). (Middle) Extraversion
correlated with left amygdala activation (Ϫ22, Ϫ9, Ϫ20) to happy, but not fearful, faces.
(Right) Participants’ mean activations (in T scores) as a function of extraversion, from voxels
surviving small volume correction. For fearful-neutral, no voxels survived at P Ͻ 0.05 threshold,
which was therefore reduced to P Ͻ 0.25. Black squares represent females, and black triangles
sions varies with extraversion (7 ). Signifi-
tiousness) and all four facial expressions.
8. R. J. Davidson, P. Ekman, C. D. Saron, J. A. Senulis, W. V.
Friesen, J. Personal Soc. Psychol. 58, 330 (1990).
9. P. T. Costa, R. R. McCrae, Neo Five-Factor Inventory
the amygdaloid region. The first is engaged
(NEO-FFI) Professional Manual (Psychological Assess-
sions (Fig. 1, left). Amygdala activation for
consistently across people in response to
happy expressions correlated positively and
fearful expressions and may reflect the im-
10. Supported by National Institute of Mental Health
grant MH59259 to I.H.G. We thank M. Thoma-
significantly with the degree of extraver-
portance of detecting cues to potentially
son, E. Benson, and A. Tso for assistance in data
sion (Fig. 1, middle and right). The center
dangerous situations. The second process is
of the correlation cluster was located in the
engaged variably across people, as a func-
amygdala but extended into regions of the
tion of extraversion, in response to happy
uncus and hippocampus. The specificity of
expressions. This activation was left-later-
Department of Psychology, Stanford University,
alized, i.e., located within the hemisphere
associated with positive emotions and with
*Present address: Department of Psychology, State
University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony
was supported in three ways: (i) Extraver-
approach-related behavior (8), and may
sion did not correlate significantly with
thus contribute to behavior consistent with
†To whom correspondence should be addressed.
activation to other emotional (angry, fear-
the sociable interactive style of extraverts.
www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 296 21 JUNE 2002
Mast cells are normal cells of the immune system, which start in the bone marrow and then mature in the skin, the digestive tract, and other tissues. Mast cell tumors occur when one of these cells begins dividing uncontrollably and form a lump. Mast cell tumors are the most common malignant skin cancer in dogs. They can also form in the internal organs. A genetic predisposition is suspected, bu
Table 1. By type of infection, microorganisms to be suspected in relation to the presence or not of risk factors for multidrug resistance and suggested empirical treatments [VAP: ventilador-associated pneumonia; MDR: multidrug resistance; ESBL: extended-spectrum β-lactamase; ESCPM group ( Enterobacter cloacae , Enterobacter aerogenes , Serratia marcescens , Citrobacter freundii , Providen