Ecklonia Cava Research
Coronary Artery Disease
Ecklonia Cava’s has been shown to improve coronary artery disease (CAD). Researchers found that
ECE is even more effective at inhibiting the oxidation of LDL cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol) than
green tea catechins, and appears to scrub the plaque off the endothelial lining. ECE also reduces
vascular inflammation by preventing oxidation, which also directly effects the body's inflammatory
Coronary Artery Disease: 6-Week Clinical Trial
A clinical trial using ECE was conducted confirming its capacity to regenerate the vascular
endothelium (the cells critical to the inner lining of the blood vessels) and recover plasticity of
blood vessels after 6 weeks of treatment. The results indicate ECE's remarkable ability to induce
recovery of endothelial cells and improve vascular plasticity. These findings demonstrate ECE’s
ability to support restoration of vascular integrity by reversing atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol: 6-Week Clinical Trial
Researchers gave 39 adults (average age 55.6) low dose (100 mg) ECE compounds for six weeks.
Their average cholesterol dropped from 228 to 224. LDL dropped from 141 to 135. HDL rose from
46.5 to 50.7 (highly significant). Triglycerides fell from 215 to 195, and the atherogenic index
Some of the parameters from the above study show very moderate changes, which in themselves,
may not be statistically significant. However, all parameters went in a health-positive direction, so
taken together, the changes in LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood pressure, and antioxidant protection
are very significant. Also, endothelial cells were protected against oxidative damage, and were able
to produce significantly more nitric oxide, which dilates blood vessels. Dramatic increases in blood
High Blood Pressure: 4-Week Animal Study
The extraordinary effect of ECE on vasodilation was clearly confirmed in a study of rats with
induced high blood pressure. Upon oral administration of ECE phlorotannin (50 mg/kg) or enalapril
(a commercial drug for high blood pressure 10 mg/kg), blood pressure dropped to as low as 160
and 140 mm Hg. Upon termination of treatment, blood pressure increased again in both cases.
even though ECE showed a similar pattern to the drug, it also showed a slower rebounding of blood
pressure during the no treatment period, which indicates its potential as a vascular protector with
ECE tannins have been found to be powerful natural ACE inhibitors, demonstrating more than 15
times the power to inhibit ACE as the most powerful land-based polyphenols, as well as the natural
hypotensive substance catechin found in green tea.
As well, one of the compounds found in ECE (THP-BE) is equivalent to bradykinin, an significant
hormone produced by the body that helps keep blood vessels dilated and open, thus encouraging
Plasmin (an important fibrinolytic enzyme that breaks down blood clots) is quickly blocked by a
protein called antiplasmin. ECE compounds are natural potent inhibitors of anti-plasmin, capable of
efficient promotion of plasmin that performs fibrinolysis. ECE compounds have shown amazing
activity which is 40-200 times greater than the anti-plasmin inhibiting drugs Flufenamate and
ECE: Phase I Clinical Trial Preliminary Results
In a 2 month, double-blinded study of recognized fibromyalgia patients, ECE was administerd as an
additional therapy to the patients’ current standard of Doctor care. The results established the
general safety of ECE. ECE cut the time it took the participants to fall asleep by 47 minutes; it
augmented total nighttime sleep by 1.6 hours; it improved depth of sleep by 80%; it boosted their
energy levels by70%; it gave them 2 1/4 more good days per week; it helped decrease their pain
by 30%; and their general condition improved by 40%. Interestingly, these improvements were
achieved at all doses. Patients given the placebo had no improvement during the study.
BRAIN FUNCTION: MEMORY, RELAXATION, ALERTNESS
Greatly Improved Blood Flow
Since Ecklonia Cava is fat-soluble, it has the capability to cross the blood-brain barrier and
considerably improves blood flow to the brain. This is another way ECE improves memory. More
specifically, Dr. Lee’s group found that ECE increases the rate of blood flow in the carotid artery
(the main artery to the brain) from an average of 36.68 cm/ sec. to 40.09 cm/sec., while the
Memory & Acetylcholine
Memory is related to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). In an animal study, ECE increased
rodent acetylcholine by 140% in the brain regions responsible for learning and memory in just 7
days. Memory augmentation increased by 100-200% at a dose as low as 0.2-1mg/kg.
Regard to mechanism, it is contemplation that ECE works by slightly inhibiting an enzyme that
breaks down acetylcholine called acetylcholinesterase. By inhibiting this enzyme, the availability
and utilization of acetylcholine in the body would be enhanced.
Another study establish that ECE compounds prevented sleepiness in bus drivers and in high school
students for the duration of daytime activities. This is also probable due to increased blood flow
Relaxation & Alpha-Waves
An EEG study on brain waves of healthy middle age volunteers found that ECE compounds increase
alpha-waves. Alpha-waves are an indicator of relaxation.
Ecklonia Cava has demonstrated potent neuroprotective effects due to several features of its
components. ECE compounds are both powerful antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds
capable of scavenging free radicals and suppressing excessive inflammatory reactions. Fucoidan,
an ECE compound, has been found to protect neuronal cells from ischemia-induced (reduced blood
flow) inflammatory reactions which often occur in the aged and highly stressed brain. ECE
compounds also deactivate the powerful neurotoxic free-radical peroxynitrite.
Resistance of Stress-Induced Learning Deficit in Mice
In a 5-day study, Ecklonia Cava treated mice showed considerable resistance to electric shock
treatment-induced learning deficit, as compared to non-treated mice whose learning process was
considerably retarded during the test period.
Enhanced Memory in Mice
The positive effects of ECE compounds on memory augmentation were further demonstrated by
measuring the latency time avoiding the previously experienced electric shock treatment in mice as
passive-avoidance memory testing. After 7 days oral administration of two ECE compounds DE and
Enhancement of Acetylcholine Levels in Mice
With 7 days of oral administration of two Ecklonia Cava compounds (DE 10 mg/kg and PFF 2
mg/kg), mice under ethanol-induced cognitive impairment showed substantial enhancement of
acetylcholine levels in three brain regions related to memory formation, as compared with non-
treated mice. Acetylcholine was enhanced by 140% in the frontal cortex, the part of the brain
crucial for long-term memory and associative thinking.
(as low as 1 and 0.2 mg/kg), mice under ethanol-induced cognitive impairment showed 130-140%
improvement, especially in the PFF group.
Beta-Amyloid Deposition Inhibition in Rats
Researchers at the National Institute of Health’s aging research labs in Baltimore studied ECE in
rats, and found it to inhibit beta-amyloid deposition in the brain. Beta-amyloid is the substance
that accumulates in Alzheimer’s disease. The rats also learned maze challenges faster, which
demonstrated improvement in short-term memory.
ARTHRITIS, INFLAMMATION, NEURALGIA
Dr. Lee and colleagues found Ecklonia Cava to naturally suppress inflammatory responses and
defuse inflammatory damage caused by free radicals. The most favorable combination of ECE’s
natural anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective properties appears to enable remarkable
improvement in both arthritis and neuralgia. with human trial, ECE considerably reduced pain in a
group of knee arthritis patients compared to placebo.
Cartilage protecting properties
Ecklonia Cava Extract compared nearly identically to celecoxib in the ability to reduce PGE2 by
slowing down the lipoxygenase (LOX) system (a key inflammatory enzyme system). ECE
compounds have more than double the ability of resveratrol (a powerful antioxidant polyphenol
found in red grapes) to inhibit LOX. These results were demonstrated in a study on rabbit cartilage
cells. Those cells treated with ECE had up to an 80% reduction in degeneration.
Comparable to Celebrex®
Ecklonia Cava’s ability to treat arthritis has been found to be comparable to Celebrex®, the
prescription drug that reduces inflammatory enzymes known as "COX" enzymes.
The influence of ECE on the generation of inflammatory prostaglandins known as PGE2 was
studied. ECE, celecoxib (Celebrex®) and aspirin all showed considerable inhibition of PGE2
generation in the concentration range tested. More exclusively, ECE showed inhibition of 61%,
85%, 92% and 99% at concentrations of 10, 30, 60 and 100 µg/mL correspondingly, showing
similar activity to celecoxib which showed 65%, 79%, 85% and 96%.
Conjecture about Neuropathy Mechanism
The strong lipid and cholesterol reducing potential of ECE supports reduced vascular inflammation.
Increasingly, the scientific literature supports the notion that many forms of nerve pain or
neuropathy are caused by nerve pressure, as exerted by swollen, inflamed blood vessels adjacent
Neuropathy: 4-Week Clinical Trial
Researchers recently studied ECE on 40 patients with neuropathy. ECE reduced nerve pain by 40%
in four weeks. Overall, 80% of the patients responded favorably.
ALLERGIES / ASTHMA
ECE appears to significantly relieve allergic reactions without drowsiness, dizziness and other side
University of Washington Asthma Mouse Study
The efficiency of ECE for asthma was confirmed in an allergen-induced murine asthma mouse study
Emil Chi, Chairman, Histopathology Department, Washington University.
The researchers tested an Ecklonia Cava Extract product (KLS) in a mouse study of allergen-
induced chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. The antigen-treated mice developed an extensive
cellular inflammatory reaction, overproduction of mucus and airway mucus plugging.
KLS was found to be effective in considerably reducing allergic reaction in inflammation. KLS
reduced airway mucus plugging, and sub-epithelial fibrosis in the antigen-sensitized challenged
mice. KLS were shown to be successful in improving the asthmatic lung structures. No pathological
alterations in the liver, kidney, spleen, or small intestine were found.
Allergic Inflammation: Mouse Study
Dr. Lee and his team found that ECE significantly reduced allergic inflammation in mice.
Specifically, ECE reduced the migration of eosinophils (inflammatory white blood cells) to the lungs
by 75%. Eosinophils and resulting cytokines were reduced by 50%. Mucus plugs in the airways
were reduced by 75%. Airway epithelial hyperplasia reduced by 75%. Collagen-causing fibrosis in
lung interstitium (fibrosis, airway remodeling) and smooth muscle cell thickness was reduced by
20% and 32%. These latter findings suggest that ECE compounds may prevent or reverse the
progression of chronic lung disease such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Because the 5-LOX system plays such a major role in inflammatory and allergic responses,
inhibition of 5-LOX has become a medicinal target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One
of the ECE compounds (8,8-BE) significantly inhibits 5-LOX compared with other well-known
natural medicinal compounds such as resveratrol and EGCG.
Ecklonia Cava Extract Beverage: 2-Week Clinical Trial
With a human study, 141 young adults were given a beverage containing ECE at 200 mg daily. In
two weeks their regular weight dropped nearly 2.5 pounds, muscle mass increased by nearly 2.5
pounds, and body fat dropped by 4 pounds, or 7.48%. ECE stimulates the body to burn fat by
The Diacylglycerol acetyl transferase (DGAT) is an vital enzyme involved in triglyceride synthesis.
Triglycerides are circulating fat molecules that ultimately wind up in the fat cells, and are almost
always elevated in diabetes. They also have emerged as a major risk factor for vascular diseases.
Dr. Lee found that ECE compounds inhibited DGAT more than 50%. In genetically caused obese
laboratory rats, ECE reduced body fat and increased physical activity. In another study, ECE caused
leanness and fat-resistance in animals given a high fat diet.
Reduced Fat in Liver & Pancreas
A mouse study showed that ECE reversed fat deposition in liver and pancreas cells. in addition, this
same study showed that ECE served to markedly inhibit inflammation in the pancreas. A recent
Harvard (Joslin School of Diabetes) mouse study directly implicates excessive fat deposition in the
mouse pancreas for turning on the inflammation pathway, resulting in full-blown type II diabetes
Aldose Reductase Inhibition
When blood sugar’s become elevated, the enzyme aldose reductase converts surplus glucose into
the sugar alcohol sorbitol. Sorbitol can build in critical cells and cause damage. Recent research
found that animals lacking in aldose reductase were protected from the retinal complications of
diabetes. ECE compounds have been found to be potent aldose reductase inhibitors, which may be
of benefit for patients with metabolic syndrome, syndrome X, or diabetes.
Obviously, Ecklonia Cava Extract’s many health benefits provide additional cardiovascular
protection for obese and morbidly patients, who are more prone to cardiovascular and coronary
heart disease. As discussed, ECE lowers LDL cholesterol, suppresses triglyceride fabrication,
promotes healthy blood flow, lowers blood pressure, and scavenges free radicals, to name a few.
DGAT Inhibition & Obesity
DGAT inhibition has recently been recognized as a novel and safe target for the treatment of
obesity. DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) is a key enzyme involved in intestinal fat absorption,
triglyceride levels, fat storage, and energy metabolism in muscles. In a mouse study in which
DGAT was inhibited, mice demonstrated obesity resistance with a high-fat diet. ECE compounds are
ERECTILE FUNCTION ECE V. VIAGRA®
As discussed earlier, Ecklonia Cava can rejuvenate the vascular endothelium. They produce the
chemical nitric oxide (NO), that keeps the arterial walls relaxed and dilated. After a 6 -week study
of ECE, flow mediated dilation and NO mediated dilation increased by 60% and 50%. In another
study, coronary artery disease patients were given ECE for six weeks. Blood flow controlled by NO
increased 50-60%. These results confirm that ECE can rejuvenate damaged endothelial cells to
produce NO. This effect was further confirmed in a study on erectile dysfunction (see below).
Interestingly, Viagra® works by increasing NO in the penile artery.
ECE v.Viagra®: 8-Week Clinical Trial
Scientists studied 31 men with erectile dysfunction for over six months. For eight weeks they
compared ECE to Viagra®. They looked at orgasmic function, intercourse fulfillment, erectile
function, and overall fulfillment. No side effects were reported with Ecklonia Cava Extract.
During the course of 8 weeks ECE & Viagra® scored:
In addition, scores on key questions (frequency of penetration and frequency of maintaining an
erection after penetration), which directly indicate the ability to attain and maintain an erection
adequate for sexual activity and penitration, were improved by 74% and 77%.
The results powerfully indicate that the long-term oral consumption of ECE drastically contributes
to the normalization of the general vascular environment around the sexual organ. The mechanism
of which is most likely due to neutralization of oxidative risk factors, thus improving peripheral
blood circulation around muscles and nerves involved in sexual function as well as the penile
Long-Term Improvement Possibilities
When taking all of ECE's benefits into consideration, long-term oral administration of ECE may
contribute to long-term improvement in vascular health, including the penile artery.
The additional value of ovarian hyperstimulationin intrauterine insemination for couples withan abnormal postcoital test and a poor prognosis:a randomized clinical trialPieternel Steures, Jan Willem van der Steeg, M.D.,Peter G. A. Hompes, M.D., PhPatrick M. M. Bossuyt, J. Dik F. Habbema, Marinus J. C. Eijkemans, M.Sc., Ph.D.,Caroline A. M. Koks, Petra Boudrez, M.D.,Fulco van der Veen, M.D., Ph.D.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 803– 808, 2001Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. PII S0891-5849(01)00477-4 Fast Track Paper NITROXYL OXIDIZES NADPH IN A SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASENDREAS REIF,* LUIGI ZECCA,*† PETER RIEDERER,* MARTIN FEELISCH,‡ and HARALD H. H. W. SCHMIDT*Clinical Neurochemistry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Julius-Maximil