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Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)
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Swine Flu
What is Swine Influenza?

Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus that regularly
causes outbreaks of influenza in pigs. Swine flu viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in
pigs. Swine influenza viruses may circulate among swine throughout the year, but most outbreaks occur
during the late fall and winter months similar to outbreaks in humans. The classical swine flu virus (an
influenza type A H1N1 virus) was first isolated from a pig in 1930.
How many swine flu viruses are there?
Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza and
human influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species
infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or
avian influenza viruses can emerge. Over the years, different variations of swine flu viruses have emerged.
At this time, there are four main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1,
H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. However, most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been
H1N1 viruses.
Swine Flu in Humans
Can humans catch swine flu?

Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have
occurred. Most commonly, these cases occur in persons with direct exposure to pigs (e.g. children near pigs
at a fair or workers in the swine industry). In addition, there have been documented cases of one person
spreading swine flu to others. For example, an outbreak of apparent swine flu infection in pigs in
Wisconsin in 1988 resulted in multiple human infections, and, although no community outbreak resulted,
there was antibody evidence of virus transmission from the patient to health care workers who had close
contact with the patient.
How common is swine flu infection in humans?
In the past, CDC received reports of approximately one human swine influenza virus infection every one to
two years in the U.S., but from December 2005 through February 2009, 12 cases of human infection with
swine influenza have been reported.
What are the symptoms of swine flu in humans?
The symptoms of swine flu in people are expected to be similar to the symptoms of regular human include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing. Some people with swine flu also have
reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Can people catch swine flu from eating pork?
No. Swine influenza viruses are not transmitted by food. You can not get swine influenza from eating pork
or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an
internal temperature of 160°F kills the swine flu virus as it does other bacteria and viruses.
How does swine flu spread?
Influenza viruses can be directly transmitted from pigs to people and from people to pigs. Human infection
with flu viruses from pigs are most likely to occur when people are in close proximity to infected pigs, such
as in pig barns and livestock exhibits housing pigs at fairs. Human-to-human transmission of swine flu can
also occur. This is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu occurs in people, which is mainly
person-to-person transmission through coughing or sneezing of people infected with the influenza virus.
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People may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose. What do we know about human-to-human spread of swine flu?
In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman was hospitalized for pneumonia and
died 8 days later. A swine H1N1 flu virus was detected. Four days before getting sick, the patient visited a
county fair swine exhibition where there was widespread influenza-like illness among the swine.
In follow-up studies, 76% of swine exhibitors tested had antibody evidence of swine flu infection but no serious illnesses were detected among this group. Additional studies suggest that one to three health care personnel who had contact with the patient developed mild influenza-like illnesses with antibody evidence of swine flu infection. How can human infections with swine influenza be diagnosed?
To diagnose swine influenza A infection, a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected
within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus).
However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Identification as a swine
flu influenza A virus requires sending the specimen to CDC for laboratory testing.
What medications are available to treat swine flu infections in humans?
There are four different antiviral drugs that are licensed for use in the US for the treatment of influenza:
amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. While most swine influenza viruses have been
susceptible to all four drugs, the most recent swine influenza viruses isolated from humans are resistant to
amantadine and rimantadine. At this time, CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the
treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses.
What other examples of swine flu outbreaks are there?
Probably the most well known is an outbreak of swine flu among soldiers in Fort Dix, New Jersey in 1976.
The virus caused disease with x-ray evidence of pneumonia in at least 4 soldiers and 1 death; all of these
patients had previously been healthy. The virus was transmitted to close contacts in a basic training
environment, with limited transmission outside the basic training group. The virus is thought to have
circulated for a month and disappeared. The source of the virus, the exact time of its introduction into Fort
Dix, and factors limiting its spread and duration are unknown. The Fort Dix outbreak may have been
caused by introduction of an animal virus into a stressed human population in close contact in crowded
facilities during the winter. The swine influenza A virus collected from a Fort Dix soldier was named
A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1).
Is the H1N1 swine flu virus the same as human H1N1 viruses?
No. The H1N1 swine flu viruses are antigenically very different from human H1N1 viruses and, therefore,
vaccines for human seasonal flu would not provide protection from H1N1 swine flu viruses.
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Microsoft word - servmed-o-que-e-o-novo-virus-da-gripe-a.doc

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