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FISH WASTE AND FUNCTIONAL FOODS
E.O. Elvevoll
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Department of Marine BiotechnologyUniversity of Tromsø9037 TromsøNorwayAuthor for Correspondance: E.O. ElvevollEmail: edele@nfh.uit.no ABSTRACT
Scientific research constantly provides new insights in the interaction between genetic predisposition, specific health risks and nutritional needs, and the functioning of separate nutrients. The role of food as an agent for improving health has been proposed Every year 30 million tons of such waste is dumped around the world, and Norway alone has been "wasting" 150,000 tons a year. Fish waste may be sources for of proteins of high biological value, unsaturated essential fatty acids, vitamins and antioxidants, minerals or trace metals and physiological beneficial amino acids and Scientific data shows that the consumption of fish or fish oil containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, decreases mild hypertension, prevents certain cardiac arrhythmia, and sudden death, lowers the incidence of diabetes, and appears to alleviate symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. It appears that omega-3 PUFAs play a vital role in the development and function of the nervous system (brain), photoreception (vision), and the reproductive Additional components in seafood may be of importance for development of life style diseases. Potent peptides with high anti hypertensive activities and petides, which may modulate neuropeptide levels, have been isolated from fish waste. Protease inhibitors of the serpin family, or serine protease inhibitors, are a family of glycoproteins that include members involved in the control of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, complement activation and inflammation processes, are also found. Calcium and vitamin D are other candidates. Antioxidants (tocopherols, ubiquinone, selenium, taurine, fish protein) have attracted special attention due to their possible prevention of low-density lipoprotein INTRODUCTION
Scientific and technological developments in the field of food have marked a shift in the way people deal with food and health. Scientific research constantly provides new insights in the interaction between genetic predisposition, specific health risks and nutritional needs, and the functioning of separate nutrients. There is a growing awareness that the dietary source and form of food may affect the overall health of the consumer. With the help of these insights and the advancing (bio) technological possibilities in this field, it is possible to develop new biological active enriched foods.
The role of food as an agent for improving health has initiated the development of new classes of food- functional foods. The term indicates a food that contains some health promoting components. Various so-called functional foods have appeared on the market. General nutritional advice such as ‘eat a varied diet and not too much’ or the ‘five food groups’, in the past is nowadays increasingly defined in terms of required intake of nutrients, whether or not geared to different target groups.
VOLUMES AND VALUE OF FISH WASTES
Fish wastes have a huge unexploited potential for value adding. Every year 18 – 30 million tons of waste is dumped around the world. The goal is to increase the use in foods, functional foods and biochemical products for human consumption. By-products from Norwegian fisheries, included fish farming, consist of viscera (liver, roe, stomachs, etc.), heads, backbones, cuts and rejected fish from processing (http://www.rubin.no/eng/). The by-products are generated when the fish is gutted, headed and further processed - either on-board in fishing vessels or in processing plants on shore. The Norwegian fisheries produce more than 550,000 tons of by- products annually, which is more than 20 % of all the fish caught and farmed in Norway.
Today most of the by-products are used as raw materials for feed production; such as fishmeal, silage and feed for fur animals. About 150.000 tons are still dumped into the sea (Figure 2). The total value adding represents 1,25 billion NOK (2001). If we succeed to utilise more of the by-products as food for humans and as ingredients in foodstuff, health foods, pharmacy, cosmetics etc., the value adding may increase by 4-5 fold.
Less than 10% of volume represents 50% of the added value (Figure1).
The current annual world production of aquaculture products is approximately 34 MMT (FAO, 1998). Total annual worldwide aquaculture landings are increasing rapidly from a total annual catch of 13.4 MMT in 1987 to 34.1 MMT in 1996 (FAO). However, as the aquaculture industry continues to grow, so do the problems associated with aquaculture of marine by-products (mill. NOK/year).
FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS FROM FISH WASTE
A relationship between fish consumption and reduced mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was shown from the early 80’s (Kromhaut et al., 1985, Marckmann and Gronbaek, 1999; Menotti et al., 1999; Mori et al., 1999). Curiously, in most of the references the positive effect has been attributed to the intake of marine fatty acids alone, although lean and fatty fish, in most studies, gave the same protective effects.
Since late 70’s it has been established that Greenland Eskimos living on their traditional marine diet, had a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) than when living in Denmark on a western diet (Dyerberg et al., 1978). All aspects of the Eskimo diet and their possible assosiation to development of CHD are still not fully explored. The Eskimos consume the bulk of their food raw or dried, seldom boiled or exposed to excessive heat (Berezovikova et al., 2001). Their traditional food habits includes extensive consumption of visceral organs, in this context regarded as waste (Elvevoll, 1988). The main task of modern processes is to make edible and stable products.
Refining procedures for the removal of molecules that causes off- flavours or -taste to improve sensory attributes or safety of marine oils may destroy potent antioxidants or remove other components with potential beneficial effects. Modern meal preparing techniques may also lower the content of biologically active components. Losses of of low molecular weight compounds like taurine due to preparing techniques are well known. Preliminary results from our lab indicates up to 50% leakage when preparing traditional (Norwegian) fish products (Dragnes and Elvevoll, 2003). Results from (Østerud et al., 1995, Brox et al., 2001, Ramirez-Tortosa et al., 1999) indicates that there are protective substances whose effect disappears when the products is subjected to rough processing conditions such as cooking or refining.
Of special interest when focusing on by- products; Eating practices that manages to maintain traditional food habits with extensive consumption of visceral organs may be beneficial for preventing atherosclerosis and hypertension (Nobmann et al., 1992).
Visceral organs (liver, heart, kidney, gonads) are known as rich sources biological active molecules (Pedersen et al., 1999).
BENEFICIAL COMPONENTS
Seafood and fish waste may be sources for of proteins of high biological value, unsaturated essential fatty acids, vitamins and antioxidants, minerals or trace metals and physiological beneficial amino acids and peptides.
Scientific data shows that the consumption of fish or fish oil containing omega-3 PUFAs reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, decreases mild hypertension, prevents certain cardiac arrhythmia, and sudden death, lowers the incidence of diabetes, and appears to alleviate symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. It appears that omega-3 PUFAs play a vital role in the development and function of the nervous system (brain), photoreception (vision), and the reproductive system (Simopoulos, 1999, Kirpal 2003).
Additional components in seafood may be of importance for development of life style diseases like coronary heart diseases (CHD). Potent peptides with high anti hypertensive activities (ACE inhibitors) and petides which may modulate central neuropeptide levels have been isolated from hydrolysates from fish meat (Yoshikawa et al., 2000, Sorensen et al., 2004). Protease inhibitors of the serpin family, or serine protease inhibitors, are a family of glycoproteins that include members involved in the control of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, complement activation and inflammation processes, are also found in seafood (Huang et al., 1995, Cao et al., 2001). Calcium, selenium, vitamin D, taurine and ubiquinone are other candidates from seafood for protection against CHD (Savige, 2001). Marine low molecular weight components antioxidants (tocopherols, CoQ10, selenium, taurine) have attracted special attention due to their possible prevention of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation (Kondo et al., 2000). Many proteins also exhibit antioxidative activity, fish proteins have also been shown to inhibit LDL oxidation in rat models.
BENEFICIAL COMPONENTS IN MARINE OILS LOST DUE TO PROCESSING?
Fish oils are extracted from whole fish, fish liver (mainly cod liver) or by-products from the fisheries industry (mainly salmon). The traditional extraction technique involves heating or steam stripping of the raw material in order to release the lipids. Marine oils are highly unsaturated and the application of high temperatures during extraction may cause undesired effects like; initiation of oxidation reactions, destruction of antioxidants and extraction of molecules that causes taste and smell in the oil fraction. It is inevitable that during heat extraction of the oil detectable changes occur in the different lipid component, as compared with their “virgin” state in the cells. A mechanical procedure applicable at lower temperatures, to avoid some of these undesired effects of temperature, has been developed (NIFA,1999).
Marine oils for human consumption are normally subject to an additional traditional oil refining process. The main objectives of this process are to remove pesticides and to make an edible and stable product. To achieve a stable, sensory acceptable and safe product the removal of a number of components (e.g. free fatty acids, phospholipids, pigments, sterols, transformation products, metals and possible toxic agents) are normally necessary. The conventional classical (caustic) refining operation consists of four main steps; degumming, deacidification (caustic neutralisation), bleaching or decolourization and deodorization. In addition optional steps like pre- cleaning (filter, sedimentation) or mixing of different batches, vinterization (dewaxing) and post – cleaning or polishing filtration may be applied. During some of the refining steps a number of chemical reactions (hydrolysis, autoxidation, isomerization, conjugation, polymerization, pyrolysis, dehydration) is likely to take place depending on the processing conditions. The process is designed to remove such products as well.
Application and number of steps are also influenced by qualities of the oil e.g.
unsaturation, accompanying substances, amount and nature of impurities, the past history – oxidative and hydrolytic damage suffered previously. Preferences are mainly based on quality criteria applied to oils, economic and environmental benefits in order to achieve a shortcut in the process sequence and less material loss.
In conclusion, removal of molecules to improve sensory attributes or safety of the marine oil may destroy potent antioxidants and may as well remove components with potential beneficial effects. There is an urgent need for development of new refining TAURINE AND ACE-INHIBITORS - REDUSED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK?
In this section, amino acids (taurine) and petides (ACE -inhibitors) are used as examples of possible additionally beneficial components from seafood and hence components in possible ingredients in functional foods. The components serve as examples when reviewing the literature. The products (functional ingredients, dietary supplements), due to refining costs, most probably, need to be relatively crude preparations (hydrolysates or free amino acids).
Differences in muscle osmolality, e.g. between marine and non-marine animals, are mainly due to nitrogenous solutes such as certain amino acids, among these, taurine (Abe, 2000). Seafood contains high levels of taurine (Laidlaw et al., 1990). The consumption of seafood is shown to give a rise in concentration serum taurine (Uhe et al., 1992, Stegink et al., 1970, Kim et al., 2003) and urinary excretion of taurine is known as a marker for seafood consumption (Biosca et al., 1990).
The suggestion of a possible association between fish intake and reduced cardiovascular risk, through the beneficial effects of taurine in addition to and n-3 fatty acids has been put forward in (Mizushima et al., 1997, Yamori et al., 1994). In humans, taurine is regarded to be a conditionally essential amino acid as its physiological concentration can be partly regulated endogenously. The amino acid, taurine is known to have several positive effects on the cardiovascular system and a broad review is presented by Niittynen et al. (1999) Firstly, taurine has an antioxidant activity. This may reduce the production of proinflammatory products. Secondly, taurine has been shown to lower blood pressure in borderline hypertensive patients. It has also been reported that taurine can improve cardiac performance, reduce blood cholesterol values and The ability to form taurine is species dependent, and cats are unable to synthesise taurine. For this reason, cats have been used in animal studies to study availability of taurine due to processing. Frozen-preserved commercial diets have been shown to maintain plasma taurine concentration, whereas the heat-processed diet did not (Kim et al., 1996). It is reported that Cod protein subjected to technological processing showed lower digestibility, assimilate-ability and growth yield as compared with raw protein. A significant correlation was found between the results of the biological assessment of the nutritional value of processed protein and content of taurine in the liver and urine of rats, on the other hand (Lipka et al.,1993).
Although commonly used as a dietary supplement in the Far East, the potential advantages of dietary taurine consumption/supplementation have not been recognised in the Western World (Stapleton et al., 1998) It has been documented that peptides from the digests of fish muscle possesses potent inhibitory activity against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) ( Galardy et al., 1984, Kohama et al., 1996, Matsufuji et al., 1994, Yohshikawa et al., 2000, Sorensen et al., 2004). They possesses potent antihypertensive activities. For assessment of relative antihypertensive activities two peptides form fish to that of captopril (a common drug), they were orally administered to rats. When compared on molar basis accounted for 66% and 91% relative to that of captopril. It is of interest to note that of these peptides exert remarkably higher antihypertensive activities in vivo despite weaker in vitro ACE- inhibitory effects, which was ascertained by using captopril as the reference drug. Such peptides may be regarded as healthy components (through endogenous metabolism) of fish muscles and may be produced as ingredients or diet supplements.
CONCLUSION
1. Fish wastes - a huge unexploited potential (volume) for value adding.
2. Fish wastes - extended use as food, ingredients in functional food, in diet 3. Fish wastes - The products, due to refining costs, need to be relatively crude 4. Fish wastes - A wide range of components in addition to unsaturated fatty acids should be studied and developed as products.
5. Fish wastes - There is a need for development of new refining techniques due to losses of availability trough traditional preparing and processing.
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