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ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
CHAPTER 7
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
CHAPTER 7
Curriculum of the Second Year for Dental Students
Lec. Sem. Pract. Ass. ECTS Lec. Sem. Pract. Ass. ECTS TOTAL 137
23 158 47 127 23
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY, HISTOLOGY
AND EMBRYOLOGY

Subject: ORAL ANATOMY, HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Year, semester: 2nd year, 1st semester
seminar: 60
practical: 60

The lectures are the same given to the medical students. The first hour of the anatomy practicals is seminar held in the dis-
secting room. Some parts of the histology practicals is seminar.
Topics:
parotid gland only one side by careful preparation of branches of the facial nerve and blood vessels. Dissec- tion of the frontal and temporal regions. Neck: dissec- Topographical anatomy of the head and neck - part one tion of the supraclavicular triangle. Spare the sterno- Topographical anatomy of the head and neck- part two Topographical anatomy of the oral and nasal cavities Histology: Repetition of general histology Anatomy, histology and development of the teeth Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and neck I- a. Topographical anatomy of the head and neck: part Surface anatomy: Draw the surface projections and 7. Granulation tissue (healing wound from rat skin) (HE landmarks of the following structures on the cadaver: Head: cutaneous branches of the trigeminal nerve. Branches of the facial nerve on the face and neck. Fa- cial, superficial temporal and external carotid arteries. Retromandibular vein. Parotid gland and parotid duct. Lymph nodes and lymphatic drainage of head. Neck: Triangles of the neck. Superficial veins (ext. jugular vein). Cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus. Posi- tion of the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, thyroid Development of the face, and oral and nasal cavities gland. The carotid sheath (vagina vasorum) and its structures. The site of cricothyrotomy. Surface projec- tion of the apex of the lungs. Relations of the scalene muscles. Lymphatic drainage of the neck. Make sche- Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the neck: III-IV. a. Dissection of the submandibular triangle. Incise the skin in the midline and peel off laterally. Continue the dissection of the frontal, temporal and The incision of the facial skin has to be made from the supraclavicular regions. Cut the sternocleidomastoid medial part of the orbit down to the philtrum passing round the nose, then continued through the lower lip to At the side of the intact parotid gland dissect the struc- the chin. At the neck region a vertical incision has to tures which pierce the gland. The parotid gland itself be made in the midline, from the base of the mandible to the sternum, and a transversal incision along the b. Carotid triangle and the middle part of the neck. Sul- clavicle. The skin is to be folded laterally. Attention: cus lateralis linguae, muscles of the floor of the mouth. Branches of the supraclavicular nerves cross the clavi- Dissection of the scalenotracheal fossa. Branches of b. Dissect the superficial structures: branches of the Vth the subclavian artery. Repetition of the superficial re- and VIIth cranial nerves, facial artery and vein, parotid duct, cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus, super-ficial cervical artery, external jugular vein, triangles of Histology: Lip, tongue and salivary glands the neck. Careful preparation of the muscles of face. Face: Topography of the parotid gland. Nerves and 2. Tongue (filiform and fungiform papillae) (HE stain). blood vessels related to the parotid gland. Remove the 3. Tongue (circumvallate papillae) (HE stain) CHAPTER 7
larynx. Make a schematic drawing of the median sec- Demonstration of the pharynx, larynx, tongue, palatine and lingual tonsil. Make schematic drawings of these structures. Overview: blood supply and innervation of the oral cavity mucosa, tongue and larynx. 2. Palatine tonsil (HE stain). 3. Lingual tonsil (HE stain) Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the 4. Demonstration: Cells of the lymph node (video), thy- a. Head: Infratemporal fossa. At the side of the removed parotid gland dissect the alveolar nerve and artery from the mandibular canal and remove that half of the mandible. Cut out the masseter, the external and inter- nal pterygoid muscles by careful preparation of the Thyroid, parathyroid and suprarenal glands structures between the two pterygoid muscles. Prepa- ration of the inferior alveolar nerve, lingual nerve, chorda tympani, maxillary artery, auriculotemporal nerve, middle meningeal artery, stylohyoid, styloglos- sus, stylopharyngeus muscles, glossopharyngeal nerve. Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the Remove the lateral plate of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. Find the muscles of the soft palate. a. Repetition of the skull. I. Bones and soft tissue, divi- Overview: blood supply and innervation of the teeth. sions of nasal and oral cavities. Paranasal sinuses. b. Dissection of the nucheal region from the external oc- Repetition of the median section of the head and neck. cipital protuberance to the 7th thoracic vertebra. Oc- b. Repetition of the skull. II. Anatomy of the teeth. cipital artery, muscles of the nucheal region from layer to layer. Identify the suboccipital triangle and its ele- Histology: EXAMINATION: Histology of lip, tongue, Remove all muscles attached to the occipital bone. salivary glands, palate, lymphatic tissues. Development of Make visible the posterior arch of the atlas and exar- the face, oral and nasal cavities, pharyngeal gut. ticulate the atlantooccipital joint. Cut through the alar ligaments and the apical ligament. Bend the head for- ward. The head remains connected to the body only through the pharynx and esophagus. In the other ca- daver, structures related to the pharynx are dissected. Practicum and seminar: Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the l. Longitudinal section of palate (HE stain) a. Clinical anatomy of the oral cavity, teeth and tem- 2. Longitudinal section of palate (van Gieson stain) poromandibular joint. Problem-solving cases. 5. Overview: types of mucosal membranes in oral cavity Histology: Histology of teeth – part one 1. Longitudinal section of demineralized tooth (HE stain) 2. Longitudinal section of demineralized tooth (Azan 3. Longitudinal section of mineralized tooth (unstained) 4. Longitudinal section of mineralized tooth (Dimethyl- 5. Overview: structure of enamel, dentin, cementum Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head and the a. Open the posterior wall of the pharynx and investigate the related structures. Study the faucial isthmus. Dis- Anatomy: EXAMINATION. Thoracic cavity I. section of the larynx in situ: remove the lamina of the a. EXAMINATION: Topographical anatomy of the head thyroid cartilage the one side and dissect the muscles and neck. Oral and nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx. b. Bones, joints and muscles of the thorax. Structure of b. Demonstration of the median section of the head and the thoracic wall. Topography of the intercostal neck. Conclusion of the dissection of the pharynx and spaces. Lymphatic drainage of the breast. Diaphragm. ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
Divisions of the thoracic cavity. Mediastinum. Surface Histology: Respiratory system projections of the thoracic organs. On the anterior tho- racic wall draw the following landmarks: projection lines of the heart and its orifices, the auscultation areas of the cardiac valves, margins of the cardiovascular 4. Demonstration: Lung, the vascular system filled with shadow, projections of the lungs, pleurae and pleural recesses. These drawings are to be transmitted into the body scheme provided in your anatomy schedule handout. Carefully relate the projections to the posi- tion of the sternum and ribs in the schematic drawing! Histology: Histology of teeth – part two. Periodontal a. Demarcate the regions of the abdominal wall and cav- 1. Longitudinal section of demineralized tooth (HE stain) ity and draw the surface projections of abdominal or- 2. Longitudinal section of demineralized tooth (van Gi- gans on the cadaver. These drawings should be intro- duced in the body scheme in your anatomy schedule 3. Cross section of demineralized tooth with periodontal handout. Muscles of the abdominal wall. Layers of the abdominal wall. Median abdominal and the inguinal regions, inguinal canal. Inspection and identification 4. Cross section of demineralized tooth with periodontal of the abdominal organs. Compare the surface projec- ligaments, alveolar bone (van Gieson stain) tions on the body and in your own drawings with the 5. Overview: structure of periodontal ligaments, alveolar actual positions of the organs. Isolated organs (stom- bone, pulp, gingiva. The tooth support mechanism ach, small and large intestines, liver, spleen, pan- b. Peritoneum, peritoneal ligaments, omental bursa. Summary of the development of digestive system and Anatomy: Thoracic cavity II-III. a. Study of the heart on isolated preparations. Size and Histology: EXAMINATION: Histology and development position of the heart. Pericardium. External anatomy of teeth, histology of periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, gingival. Histology of respiratory system. of the heart. Arteries and veins of the heart. Internal anatomy of the atria and the ventricles of the heart. Types, locations and functions of the heart valves. Layers of the heart wall. The conducting system. Functional aspects of the circulatory system. Pulmo- nary and systemic circulation. Presentation of radio- Anatomy: Abdominal cavity III-IV. graphs, cardivascular silhoutte. Short overview of the a. Topography of the stomach, small and large intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, suprarenal glands. Po- b. Study the trachea, lungs, pleura and its recesses. Re- sitions of the lesser and greater omentum, omental move the lungs and inspect the surfaces, lobes and hi- bursa, mesentery, transverse mesocolon. Arteries (ce- lum. Make schematic drawings of the surfaces of the liac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric artery). lungs. Dissect bronchopulmonary segments (in one of Portal vein. Discussion of the abdominal lymphatic the lungs) and bronchial arborization (in an other lung). Summary of the development the respiratory b. Kidneys, suprarenal glands. Dissection of the kidney, demarcate a lobe of the kidney. Make a schematic Histology: Development of the teeth drawing of the coronal section of a kidney. Topogra-phy and sheaths of the kidney. Layers of the retroperi- 1-2. Teeth primordia in the rat's head (HE stain) toneal space. Paired visceral and parietal branches of 3-4. Teeth primordia in the rat's head (Azan stain) the abdominal aorta. Inferior vena cava and its 5. Overview: Developmental mechanisms of teeth Histology: Digestive system - part one Anatomy: Thoracic cavity IV. EXAMINATION a. Definition and divisions of the mediastinum. Struc- tures of the supracardiac and posterior mediastinum. 6. Demonstration: Esophagus (HE stain), stomach (GEP Presentation of radiographs. Clinical cases. cells: silver impregnation and immunohistochemical CHAPTER 7
Anatomy: True pelvis and perineal region III-IV. Anatomy: Abdominal cavity V. EXAMINATION a. Perineal region. Structures of the anal region. Ischio- rectal fossa. Urogenital region. and external genital b. Inspection of organs and peritoneum after halving of Histology: Digestive system - part two the pelvis in the median plane. Make schematic draw- ings of the female and male pelvic organs! Placenta. 3. Liver from rat (Trypan blue supravital stain + Nuclear Histology: The urogenital system - part two l. Testis and epididymis (HE stain) 5. Demonstration: Pancreas (GEP cells: silver impregna- 3. Demonstration: Prostate (Goldner's stain), ovary with Anatomy: True pelvis and perineal region I-II. a. External genital organs - demonstration. Topography of the organs in the true pelvis (in males). Rectum, Anatomy: Repetition. a. Repetition. True pelvis and perineal region. Anatomy b. Topography of the organs in the true pelvis (in fe- males). Ovary, uterine tube, uterus. Demonstration of excised preparations. Blood vessels, peritoneal rela- Histology: Urogenital system- part one 1. Uterus - proliferative stage (HE stain) 2. Kidney - tangential section (HE stain) 3. Kidney (Vascular infiltration with drawing ink + HE 4. Demonstration: Pregnant uterus (HE stain) 4. Demonstration: Ureter (HE stain), urinary bladder (HE b. EXAMINATION. Digestive and urogenital system. Requirements

Concerning attendance, the rules written in the Regulations Governing Admission, Education and Examinations of the
Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen are valid. The presence in practices and seminars will be recorded. The head
of the department may refuse to sign the Lecture Book if a student is absent more than four times from practices and semi-
nars (including anatomy, histology and embryology) in one semester even if he/she has an acceptable reason. Compensa-
tion of practices and seminars is possible only on the same week at an other student’s group.
The program of the lectures, seminars and practices are written in the English Program Bulletin.

Rules of the examinations:
Midterm examinations;
Attendance in the midterm examinations (dates and topics are indicated in the English program Bulletin) is compulsory.
The exams cover the topics of lectures, seminars and practices of the semester. On the midterm exams students have to
identify structures on the cadavers (gross anatomy) or in histological sections (microscopic anatomy) and answer short es-
say-like questions.
Evaluation of the midterm exams:
In the midterm exams the students collect points that are summed up at the end of the semester. Students who performed over
the 80% limit in the midterm exams (who collected more than 80% of the total number of points during the semester) are ex-
empted from the written part of the final exam at the end of the semester.
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
Final Exam at the end of the 1st semester:
The exam consists of a written part and a practical (oral) part, covering the topics of lectures, seminars and practices of the
two semesters.
The written exam consists of 20 questions and lasts for 60 minutes.
Students who performed above the 60% limit can sit for the practical (oral) exam, the others must repeat the written part.
The practical (oral) exam consists of the following parts:
1. Histology
2. The musculo-skeletal system (anatomy of the upper and lower limbs, back; bones, joints, muscles, nerves, blood ves-
3. The head and neck (bones, joints, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic drainage, sense organs, oral and nasal 4. The visceral organs (gross and topographic anatomy including visceral relations of the organs of the thorax, abdomen,
At the B or C exams the written part is not compulsory for those students who passed the written part at the 1st (A) exam.
The written examination starts at 8:00 AM, and the practical (oral) part starts at 10:00 AM.
Examination days: three days a week. Minimum number of students: 5/day, maximum number of students: 30/day (includ-
ing students from the English and Hungarian Programs).
Registration and postponement: every working day, 12:30-13:30. The students must report themselves to exam before the
beginning of the examination period.
An advanced payment of an examination fee is the prerequisite for sitting B and C examinations. The student must present
the proof of the payment (examination ticket) to the Department at the registration for the B and C examinations.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY, HISTOLOGY
AND EMBRYOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY
AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Subject: NEUROBIOLOGY
Year, semester: 2nd year, 2nd semester
lecture: 62
seminar: 14
practical: 52
ANATOMY, HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY
The structure and pathways of the medulla oblongata. The structure and pathways of the pons and mesencepha- LECTURES
The histology of the nervous system I. The neuron. The structure of the diencephalon. The thalamus. The histology of the nervous system II. The neuroglia. Re- The anatomy and histology of the eye. The muscles of the eyeball, conjunctiva, eyelids, lacrimal apparatus. The Development of the nervous system – neurohistogenesis. The structure of the retina. The optic pathway. Anatomy and histology of the middle and inner ear. The structure and development of the spinal cord and brain- The vestibular system. The auditory system. Development of the eye. Development of the vestibular and The structure and development of the spinal cord and Development of diencephalon. The third ventricle. The Axonal transport. Degeneration and regeneration in the structure and development of the telencephalon. The lat- Signal transduction in the nervous system. Synaptic and non-synaptic neurotransmission. Ultrastructure and mo- lecular architecture of the chemical synapsis. CHAPTER 7
Receptors, primary afferents. Sensory functions of the BIOCHEMISTRY
LECTURES:
Metabolism of the central nervous system. Somatomotor function of the spinal cord. The motor end plate. The motor unit. The motor apparatus of the spinal Postsynaptic mechanisms of neurotransmission. Devel- Reflex functions of the spinal cord and brainstem. Pro- Roles and effects of amine neurotransmitters I and II. The somatomotor system. Hierarchy in the motor system. The basal ganglia and cerebellum as parts of the somato- PHYSIOLOGY
LECTURES:
The neuronal excitatory process, roles of the ionic chan- ANATOMY PRACTICUM:
Features and significance of the central excitatory and in- Basic forms of neuronal interaction in the central nervous Dissection of the spinal cord. Scalp. Meninges. Blood system, neuronal integration. General characteristics of supply of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid. the receptors, somato- and viscerosensory functions. Physiology of temperature and pain sensation. Neuronal mechanisms of the pain sensation, theoretical Dissection of the brain VII. (discussion of the 7th nerve) background of therapy. Optics of the vision. Factors de- Dissection of the brain VIII. (discussion of the 9th, 10th, Dissection of the visual organs. Dissection of the middle Central processing of the visual information. HISTOLOGY PRACTICUM:
Spinal control of skeletal muscle activity. Nervous tissue, peripheral nerve, spinal ganglion, sympa- Vestibular apparatus and movement coordination. Roles of the brain stem and cerebellum in the coordination Roles of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in the coor- Learning, memory.
PRACTICES: The numbers refer to the topics in the
Physiology “Exercise book” (Debrecen, 2000).
5 Examination of the cranial nerves (tests performed on

6 Examination of the somatosensory and motoric system

9 Studying the function of peripheral nerves and the in-
nervated muscle (recording and analyzing phenomena
15 Effects of neurotransmitters and hormones on uteri-
nal smooth muscle function (experiments performed on smooth muscle stripes excised from rat uterus)
16 Simulation of the action potential in the squid axon
Rules and regulations
The neurobiology course is an integrated one, delivered as a joint effort of three departments (Departments of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology; Biochemistry and Physiology). In this academic year Prof. László Kovács is the course or-ganizer. The educational activities of the Neurobiology course include lectures, seminars and practices. Most of the regu- ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
lations concerning these activities are specific to the individual departments and will be introduced by the respective edu-cation officers. In the detailed program of the course (which, in fact, corresponds to the list of requirements) as well as here, both the compulsory and suggested textbooks are listed. Note, however, that the requirements of the course include material deliv-ered in the lecture hall only, not necessarily available in the recommended textbooks, while in other cases some informa-tion in the suggested textbook is not regarded as part of the exam material. Attendance of the lectures, seminars and practices is compulsory, although one may have five lecture, two seminar and two practice absences. If one collects six or more lecture absences (regardless of the reason of the absences) all the exam advantages are withdrawn without further notice. In the case of three or more absences from either the practices or semi- nars, the course organiser may refuse the verification of the lecture book. Making up the missed seminars and practices may be possible, but the individual departments determine the actual procedure.
In order to be able to complete the requirements of the Neurobiology course, the following printed materials are rec-
ommended:
Anatomy, histology and embryology:

Haines, D.E.: Fundamental Neuroscience (2nd edition, Churchill Livingstone, 1997, ISBN: 0-443-06603-5) Moore, K.L.: Clinically Oriented Anatomy (4th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN: 0-683-06141-0) Sobotta: Atlas of Human Anatomy 1-2 (Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich, 1989, ISBN:3-541-72711) Ross, M.H., Romrell, L.J., Kaye, G.I.: Histology. A text and Atlas (4th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN: 0- 683-30242-6)
Sadler, T.W.: Langman's Medical Embryology (8th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN: 0-683-30650-2)
Physiology:
A. Fonyó: Principles of medical physiology (Medicina Publishing House Co., Budapest, 2002, ISBN: 963 242 726 2)
Physiology practice. A laboratory guide. (Revised edition, Debrecen, 2000)
Exercise book. (Revised edition, Debrecen, 2000)

Biochemistry:
Compulsory reading:
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Syllabus) Volume III., Chapter IX.(third edition, 2002.)
Suggested reading:
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Syllabus) Volume III., Chapter IX.(third edition, 2002.): Selected readings (page
46)
During the term three self-controls (SCs) are organised. If one meets the passing conditions (see below), the end-semester
examination may be substituted with the result achieved on the basis of these tests (i.e. the student in question will be ex-
empted of the final exam). The maximum achievable score is 100 points in the following distribution:
Anatomy: 50 points
11 points
39 points
The first SC (week 6) is organised by the Anatomy Department. It has two parts: histology practicum and neuroantamoy oral/practicum. All three departments participate, however, in the second (week 9) and third (week 14) self-controls (both of them are written tests). The first SC can be repeated once, but only on the week which follows the test. The 2nd or 3rd SCs may also be repeated at the end of the semester. The points collected in the frame of the three tests will be summarised on a departmental basis. If someone collects at least 60 % of the total number of points provided by the individual departments, she/he will be exempted of the end-semester examination (ESE). Note that in the case of the Anatomy department, the 60 % limit is separately applicable for the histology practicum, neuroanatomy oral/practicum and the cumulative written score achieved in the frame of the 2nd and 3rd SCs. If someone fails to reach the 60 % in the case of any department (or in the cases of more than one depart-ment) then the student must take the examination on the appropriate part(s). Three days are provided for the Neurobiol-ogy examination: 1-1 day in the first and second weeks of the exam period and 1 further day in the late Summer examina-tion period. If someone reaches the 60 % limit of all departmental scores, the ESE result can be calculated in the following way: CHAPTER 7
If the departmental score achieved by the student is more than 60 %, and he/she wishes to improve on this score, it can be done on any of the three exam days (but registration is required).
Details of the self-controls on a departmental basis:

Anatomy:

The total number of points available in the frame of the first SC: If the score of the first SC is less than 60 % (regarding either part of the SC), it must be repeated on the following week. 20 more points can be collected in the frames of the 2nd and 3rd SCs. The preconditions of the exam exemption: at least 6 points on histology practicum; at least 12 points on neuroanatomy oral/practicum and at least 12 points on the written
Biochemistry:
Altogether 11 points can be collected in the frames of the 2nd and 3rd SCs. One must have at least 6.6 points for the ex-
Physiology:
Altogether 39 points can be collected in the frames of the 2nd and 3rd SCs. One must have at least 23.4 points for the ex- emption.

Requirements for taking the course:
Anatomy II & Medical Physiology I

ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY
AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Subject: BIOCHEMISTRY I.
2nd year 1st semester
lecture: 42
seminar: 14
practical: 30
1st week:
Energy in biology. Oxidative phosphorylation. The citric 3rd week:
acid cycle and its regulation. The mithocondrial genom. Regulation of the glycolytic pathway in liver and muscle. Safety instructions and fire regulations. Introduction to the Regulation of gluconeogenesis. Glycogen in liver and mus- cle. Degradation and synthesis of glycogen. Regulation of glycogen synthesis and degradation. Metabolism of galac- 2nd week :
Introduction. Main pathways of the carbohydrate metabo- lism, central role of glucose. Absorption and transport of 4th week :
Carbohydrate metabolism in various tissues. Glycolytic Pentose phosphate pathway. Synthesis of disaccharides. Me- Rapoport-Luebering shunt. Energy production of the glyco- tabolism of glucuronic acid. Inherited diseases in the carbo- Non-physiological inhibitors of the glycolytic pathway. Biochemistry of diabetes mellitus. Pyruvate dehydrogenase Shuttle pathways. Cori cycle. Glucose-alanine cycle. Glu-
practice:

Determination of the activity of glycolytic enzymes (aldo-
lase, LDH), electrophoresis of LDH.
5th week :
lecture
Organization of lipid structures. Mixed micelles in the diges-
tive tract.
Lipoproteins in blood plasma. Covalent interactions between
proteins and lipids. Oxidation of fatty acids. Synthesis of
fatty acids.
practice:
Determination of the activity of glycolytic enzymes (aldo-
lase, LDH), electrophoresis of LDH.
6th week :
lecture
Synthesis of triacyl-glycerol. Lipid metabolism during star-
vation. Ketone bodies.
practice:
Extraction and separation of lipids. Determination of free
fatty acids.
7th week:
lecture
CHAPTER 7
The mevalonate metabolic pathway. Synthesis of cholesterol Cholesterol transport in the body. The LDL receptor and its 11th week
gene. Excretion of cholesterol.Biochemical explanation of Degradation and synthesis of proline. Degradation and syn- thesis of arginine and ornithine, their precursor functions: Extraction and separation of lipids. Determination of free NO, creatine, polyamines. Aspartate and asparagine degra- dation and synthesis in the oxaloacetate pathway. Degrada- 8th week :
tion of amino acids in the succinyl-CoA pathway. The vita- mine requirements and enzyme deficiencies in the propionyl Steroid hormones. Bile acids. Vitamin D. Eicozanoids. Lipid CoA succinyl CoA conversion. Degradation of isoleucine peroxidation. Synthesis of sphyngolipids and phospholipids and valine, related enzyme deficiencies. Comparison of leu-cine degradation with the degradation of isoleucine and valine. Degradation of lysine and tryptophane, their precur- sor functions. Carnitine synthesis. Degradation of phenyla- lanine and tyrosine, related enzyme deficiencies and precur- 9th week:
sor functions. Synthesis and degradation of cathecolamines. Comparison of the amino acid metabolism with the carbohy-drate and lipid metabolisms. Formation and utilisation of the 12th week:
intracellular amino acid pool. Nitrogen balance. Exogenous lecture Nucleotide pool. Digestion and absorption of nucleic acids. amino acid sources, digestion of proteins. Amino acid trans- Sources of atoms in purine ring. De novo synthesis of purine ports. Structure and function of glutathione. Endogenous amino acid sources: intracellular protein break- Regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis. Salvage pathways down. Common reactions in the amino acid metabolism: fate for the purine bases. Degradation of purine nucleotides. Dis- of the nitrogen. Transaminations and deaminations. Enzymes eases associated with purine nucleotide metabolism. containing pyridoxal phosphate cofactors, and their mecha- nism of action: stereoelectronic control. Formation and elimination of ammonia in the body. Nitrogen transport be- 13th week :
lecture De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. Salvage pathways for the pyrimidines. Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides. Nucleo- side and nucleotide kinases. Synthesis of deoxythymidilate. 10th week:
Nucleotide coenzyme synthesis (NAD, FAD,CoA). Antitumour and antiviral action of base and nucleoside ana- The urea cycle and its regulation. Mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. Intracellular glutamine cycle. Decar- Biochemistry of nutrition. Energy requirement. Basic meta- boxylation and carboxylation reactions in the amino acid me- tabolism. C1 transfer and transmethylation, related enzyme Energy content of the food. Energy storage and thermogene- Monooxygenation and dioxygenation reactions. Fate of the Biochemical mechanism of obesity. Protein as N and energy carbon skeleton of amino acids: glucogenic and ketogenic source. N balance. Essential amino acids. Protein malnutri- Degradation of amino acids in the pyruvate pathway. Trans- Clinical aspects of protein nutrition. Carbohydrates and lip- port function of alanine. Degradation and synthesis of cys- teine. Formation and utilization of PAPS. Degradation and Pathological mechanisms in obesity. Vitamins. Structure, biochemical functions. Relationship between the biochemi- Pathways of threonine degradation. Degradation of amino cal functions and the symptoms of deficiency. Essential in- acids in the ?-ketoglutarate pathway. Degradation of his- organic elements of the food (metabolism, function, defi- practice:
Evaluation and discussion of the practices. Controll test.
On each seminars the topics of the previous week lectures are discussed.
Requirements for signing the lecture book:
Students must visit seminars, the obligatory lectures and perform each practice. In case of seminars three-, in case of
obligatory lectures only one absence is accepted (the list of the obligatory lectures will be given at the beginning of the
course). All the practices must be prepared: if someone absent from a laboratory practice for any serious reason, the miss-
ing experiment should be performed within the 2 weeks practical period joining to another group after previous signing up
at the teacher of the group.
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
seminars the lectures of the previous week can be discussed with the lecturer (or with his/her colleague). New
scientific information, connected to the lectures will also be presented by the lecturers; this material will be asked on the
exams, too.
Bonus points: Bonus points can be earned by writing an essay. This essay should be a summary of scientific papers, based
on the newest scientific information connected to the material of the lectures (3-5 pages). If the quality of the paper reaches the
appropriate level, 6 bonus points can be earned.
The
achievement during the semester will be evaluated in term of points. During this semester 100 (+ 6) points can be
collected for the laboratory test (13 points), note book (4 x 5 points) and by the control tests from the material of the lectures (67 points - consists of test-, assay questions and chemical structures). The list of the chemical structures will be given to the stu-dents during the semester. Bonus points earned by scientific essay will be added to the total collected points. Those students who rich 80 % (average) of the total points of the Molecular Biology, Biochemistry I., II. subjects, during the semester (not in the exam period!) will be exempted from the written part of the final exam at the end of the second semester (for this exemption at least 70 points must be collected separately in each semester ). Grade first semester exam will be offered on the base of the collected points for all those students, who collected at
least 60 points (and reached at least 60% of the practical points!): 2 for 60-69,5 points; 3 for 70-79,5 points; 4 for 80-89,5 points; 5 for 90-100 points. Those students who want to get a better grade can take an exam. Those, who did not collect 60 points have to take a written exam in the exam period. The exam is a written one and consists of 20 test questions (20x1 point), 5 assay questions (4 from the lectures and one from the practices; 5x5 points) and 5 chemical structures (5x1 point). 60% (30 points) is needed to get a passing mark, and
the grade increases with every 5 points (30-34.5 pass, 35-39.5 satisfactory, 40-44.5 good, 45-50 excellent). One exam day
per week is provided during the exam period. Students must register for the exam until the end of the 15th week.
Subject: BIOCHEMISTRY II.
2nd year 2nd semester
Fractionation and quantitative determination of plasma pro- 1st week:
Levels of eucariotic gene expression. The active chromatin. 3rd week :
Regulation of transcription. Regulation at the mRNA level. Other phospholipases. cGMP phosphodiesterase sytem. Sig- nalling via one-hydrophobic domain proteins: the cGMP system. Coupling of tyrosin kinase receptors to the signalling 2nd week:
Fractionation and quantitative determination of plasma pro- Term and levels of regulation. Significance and interrelation- ship between metabolic, cytokine, hormonal and neuronal regulation. Term and levels of regulation. Significance and 4th week:
interrelationship between metabolic, cytokine, hormonal and Signals acting via cytoplasmatic targets : the NO system. neuronal regulation. Forms of external signals. Coupling of signalling pathways to the regulation of genes Forms of external signals. Receptors and transducers. Sys- and to the actin filament movement. Nuclear receptors. Sig- tems increasing the sensitivity of regulation: allosteria, sub- strate cycle, interconversion cycle, cascades. Signalling Determination of hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin. Ionchannel receptors. Seven transmembrane domain recep- Determination of urea in serum and urine. tors G proteins and GTP-ases. The adenylate cyclase and the phospholipase C signalling pathway.G proteins and GTP- 5th week :
ases. The adenylate cyclase and the phospholipase C signal- ling pathway. Control of enzyme activity. Biochemistry of cell proliferation. Mitotic cascade. M-phase CHAPTER 7
Products and biochemical function of protooncogenes. Evaluation of the results of practicals. Control test. Visit of 11th week :
Determination of hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin. Determination of urea in serum and urine. Cellular, humoral and vascular aspects of blood clotting. Structure, activation, adhesion and aggregation of thrombo- 6th week :
cytes. Classification of blood clotting factors and their role. Tumor suppressor genes and their biochemical function. Biochemical features of terminal differentiation. Biochemis- 12th week:
lecture Contact phase of blood coagulation. Blood clotting in the test tube and in the body. Classification of blood coagulation. Role of thrombocytes and the vascular endothel. Limiting factors, inhibitors and activators of blood coagulation. Fibri- 7th week:
Stress proteins and enzymes in eukariotic cells. Heat shock proteins and their functions under normal circumstances. 13th week:
Hsp 70 and hsp 60 protein families. Role of chaperones and lecture Biochemistry of the extracellular matrix: function and com- chaperonins. Thermotolerance of the cell. Hsp 90 protein family and their role in the cells. Transcriptional regulation Glucosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Collagens: struc- ture, function and genetic origin. Synthesis of type I. colla- gen. Macromolecular organization of collagen monomers. Disorders in the synthesis of collagen. Collagenases. Struc- 8th week:
Structure and functional domains of fibronectins. Plasma and tissue fibronectins, genetic background: alternative splicing. Biochemistry of the liver. Biotransformation. Biochemical Receptors of fibronectins: integrins and other type of recep- tors. Role of fibronectins. Other adhesion proteins (laminin, entactin, thrombospondin, von Willebrand factor, tenascin, 9th week :
14th week:
Biochemistry of the blood. Metabolism of red blood cells. Molecular determinant of tooth development. Molecular Genetic diseases leading to haemolysis. Hemoglobin; struc- determinants expressed during molar tooth develop- ture, function and regulation. Pathological forms of hemo- ment.Cytodifferentiation during tooth development. globin. Specific biochemical reactions of leukocytes. Leuko- Odontoblast differentiation. General interpretation of in- cytes and inflammation. Serum proteins . teractions of mesenchymal cytodifferention for epithelial cells. Growth factors and hormone-like molekules influ- ence dentin and enamel biomineralization. Function of salivary gland, salivary secretation and its neural and 10th week :
hormonal control, signal transduction pathways. Uroporphynoids, hem-proteins. Synthesis of hem, regulation 15th week:
of the synthesis in eukariotic cells. Degradation of hem: for- mation, conjugation and excretion of bile pigments. Hem Functions of salivary proteins. Biochemical mechanism of oxygenase. Disorders in hem metabolism. Iron transport, plaque and salivary calculus formation Composition of sa- storage and distribution in the human body. liva: inorganic, organic and macromolecules. Saliva- Molecular regulation of the iron level in cells: stability of bacterium interactions in oral microbial ecology. Pathobio- transferrin receptor and ferritin mRNA, IRE binding pro- tein. Risk of the free iron and intracellular hemolysis. chemical effects of salivary molecules degradation. Practice

Requirements for signing the lecture book:

Students must visit seminars, obligatory lectures (the list of the obligatory lectures will be given at the beginning of the course) and perform each practice. In case of seminars three-, in case of obligatory lectures only one absence is accepted. All the practices must be prepared: if someone absent from a laboratory practice for any serious reason, the missing ex- ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
periment should be performed within the 2 weeks practical period joining to another group after previous signing up at the teacher of the group. Practices are not obligatory for the postponers and repeaters. Participation on the seminars is obligatory. The seminars will discuss the topics of the previous week. New scientific information, connected to the lectures will also be presented by the lecturers; this material will be asked on the exams, too.


The achievement during the semester will be expressed in the term of points. During the semester 100(+6) points can be collected: 33 points during the practical periods: 13 points for the assays written on the week following the practices, 4
x 5 points for the note books. Additional 67 points can be collected from tests written from the material of the lectures.
These tests consist of test questions, short assay questions and chemical structures.

Bonus points

Bonus points can be earned by writing an essay. This essay (which is not obligatory) should be a summary of scientific pa- pers, based on the newest scientific information connected to the material of the lectures (3-5 pages). If the quality of the paper reaches the appropriate level, 6 bonus points can be earned. These bonus points are counted into the total points of the semester (max.: 100+6) Those students who collect at least 70 points in this semester (Biochemistry II.) will receive 3 bonus points, those who collect at least 80 points, will get 5 bonus points, that will be added to the result of the written part of the final exam. Fur-
ther bonus points can be collected with good results on the biochemistry competition.
Those students who rich 80 % (average) of the total points of the Molecular Biology, Biochemistry I., II. subjects,
during the semester (not in the exam period!) will be exempted from the written part of the final exam at the end of the
second semester (for this exemption at least 70 points must be collected separately in each semester ).
Final exam
The final exam consists of a written and oral part for everyone: The written exam includes 20 test questions, 5 assay
questions (four from the theoretical part: 1 molecular biology, 1 metabolism, 2 cell- and organ biochemistry and one from
the practices of the three semesters) and 5 chemical structures (20 + 25 + 5 points together). Oral exam can be taken only
if the student collects at least 60 % (30 points) in the written part. In case the oral exam is unsuccessful, but the written
was accepted, the written part must not be repeated on the B or C exam.
The oral part of the examination starts with one basic question of medical orientation, which should be answered immedi-
ately. The list of these questions will be given to students at the beginning of the second semester together with the exam
titles of the final exam. After answering the medical question, successful students will choose 3 theoretical questions
(from metabolism, cell biochemistry and organ biochemistry).
Students must register for the exam until the end of the 15th week. Postponement: only one exam can be postponed during
the exam periode.
UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN, MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER
FACULTY OF DENTISTRY
DEPARTMENT OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY
Subject: DENTAL MATERIALS
Lecturer and tutor: Csaba Hegedűs, M.D., L.D.S., PhD.
Facialities: Phantom lab., Lecture room, Library, Medline, Internet, Technical lab.
Place of practicals: Phantom lab., Faculty of Dentistry
Year, semester: 2nd year, 1st semester, 2005/2006
Lectures: 15
Practical lessons:
Methods for evaluating dental materials. About the practice lessons in general. The instruments The trial of plasters and waxes used by dental technicians. Plasters used in dentistry. Thermoplastic materials. The trial of plasters and waxes used by dental technicians. Methods for evaluating dental materials in practice. CHAPTER 7
11th week
Comparing evaluating methods used in prosthetics. Fabrication of denture base from polimers. 12th week
Basics about ceramics. Adhesion in dentistry. 13th week
The presentation of technical phasis of a ceramic fused to 14th week
Comparing materials used in prosthetics. 15th week
10th week
Impression materials. The students are required to attend the practices. The Department may refuse to sign the students’ Lecture book if they are absent from more than 20% of all practical lessons in a semester. REQUIREMENTS: Lectures: As given in the timetable (time & place) Practices: In the building of Faculty of Dentistry (Phantom lab.) Conditions of signature in the lecture book: – participation on the practices – the ratio of missed practices cannot exceed 20 % – tests, which can be required without previous notification on the pra tices, should be written at least with a mean – all practical tasks should be performed at least with a passed (2) result – any part of the exam with a failed (1) result should be repeated Assessment: assessment of course work: five grade proposed marks (involving possibility of failure) Compulsory reading: H. T. Shillingburg, S. Hobo, L. D. Whitsett, R. Jacobi, S. E. Brackett: Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics Quintessence Publishing Co. ISBN: 0-86715-201-X W. J. O’Brien: Dental Materials and Their Selection Qiuntessence Publishing Co. 1997. ISBN: 0-86715-297-4 R. M. Basker, J. C. Davenport: Prosthetic Treatment of the Edenutlous Patient Blackwell-Munksgaard, 2002. 4th Ed. ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
ISBN: 0-632-05998-2 G.Graber: Color Atlas of Dental Medicine 2: Removable Partial Dentures Thieme Medical Publisher, Inc. New York, 1988. ISBN: 3-13-711001-7 Recommended Books: Rosenstiel S.F., Land M.F., J.Fujimoto: Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics Mosby 2001. ISBN: 0-8151-5559-X Prerequisites: Medical Chemistry, Biophysics. CHAPTER 7
UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN, MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER
FACULTY OF DENTISTRY
DEPARTMENT OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY

Subject: DENTAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INSTRUMENTS
Lecturer and tutor: Csaba Hegedűs, M.D., L.D.S., PhD.
Facialities: Phantom lab., Lecture room, Library, Medline, Internet, Technical lab.
Place of practicals: Phantom lab., Faculty of Dentistry

Year, semester: 2nd year, 2nd semester, 2005/2006
Lectures: 15
Practical lessons:
Laboratory phasis of porcelain fused to metal bridges. The instruments used during the practice lessons. Machines used by the dental technicians. Walk in the technical lab. Demonstration of the machines. 10th week
11th week
Laboratory phases of of polymer covered FPD. 12th week
Working cast and dies for total dentures. 13th week:
14th week
Classification of instruments used in dentistry. Lecture Laboratory phases of bridges.
15th week
Practice Removable die. Preparation of the model. Metal frame-based removable partial denture. Practice Practical and theoretical evaluation. The students are required to attend the practices. The Department may refuse to sign the students’ Lecture book if they are absent from more than 20% of all practical lessons in a semester. ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
Lectures: As given in the timetable (time & place) Practices: In the building of Faculty of Dentistry (Phantom lab.) Conditions of signature in the lecture book: – the ratio of missed practices cannot exceed 20 % – tests, which can be required without previous notification on the pra tices, should be written at least with a mean – all practical tasks should be performed at least with a passed (2) result – any part of the exam with a failed (1) result should be repeated Assessment: assessment of course work: five grade proposed marks (involving possibility of failure ) Compulsory reading: H. T. Shillingburg, S. Hobo, L. D. Whitsett, R. Jacobi, S. E. Brackett: Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics Quintessence Publishing Co. ISBN: 0-86715-201-X W. J. O’Brien: Dental Materials and Their Selection Qiuntessence Publishing Co. 1997. ISBN: 0-86715-297-4 R. M. Basker, J. C. Davenport: Prosthetic Treatment of the Edenutlous Patient Blackwell-Munksgaard, 2002. 4th Ed. ISBN: 0-632-05998-2 G.Graber: Color Atlas of Dental Medicine 2: Removable Partial Dentures Thieme Medical Publisher, Inc. New York, 1988. ISBN: 3-13-711001-7 Recommended Books: Rosenstiel S.F., Land M.F., J.Fujimoto: Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics Mosby 2001. ISBN: 0-8151-5559-X Prerequisites: Oral Anatomy, Dental Materials. CHAPTER 7
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY

Subject: DENTAL PHYSIOLOGY I. AND
DENTAL PHYSIOLOGY II.
Year, semester: 1st and 2nd semester of the 2nd year
Number of lessons:
in the 1st semester:
in the 2nd semester:
Program of Lectures in the 1st semester
32. Pulmonary volumes, and pressure changes 34. Gas exchange in the lung, blood and tissues 36. Respiratory reflex mechanisms, chemical regulation 37. Physiological changes during exercise I. 38. Physiological changes during exercise II. 39. Preparation for laboratory practices 40. Introduction to gastrointestinal function 13. Capillary circulation, venous system 43. Secretor function, saliva, gastric juice 14. Efferent mechanisms of vasomotor regulation 44. Exocrine function of pancreas, liver and intestines 15. Preparation for laboratory practices 16. Electrical properties of the cell membrane 49. Synaptic and junctional transmission 50. Integrative function of synapses, receptors 21. Contractile properties of cardiac muscle 53. Regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis 56. Review of electrical properties of the cell membrane 57. Complex integration of cardiovascular function 58. Complex integration of respiatory system ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
59. Complex integration of gastrointestinal system Program of Lectures
in the 2nd semester

Week 1.
Lecture
1. Introduction
2. Preparation for laboratory practices
3. Morphological and functional basis of renal function
4. Quantitative description of renal function
5. Mechanism of glomerular filtration
Week 2.
Lecture
6. Regulation of glomerular filtration
7. Transport in the proximal tubular system
8. Transport in the loop of Henle and distal tubules
9. Urinary concentration and dilution
10. Excretion of water, osmoregulation
Week 3.
Lecture
11. Na+ homeostasis, defense of volume of body fluids
12. Renal regulation of acid-base balance
13. K+ homeostasis, diuretics
14. Ca2+ homeostasis, bone physiology
15. Micturition, renal function under pathologic condi-

Week 5.
Lecture
16. Review of renal physiology I.
17. Review of renal physiology II.
Week 6.
18. Preparation for laboratory practices
19. General aspects of endocrine function
20. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system
21. Growth hormone, regulation of growth
22. Sexual differentiation, male gonadal functions
Week 7.
Lecture
23. Endocrine background of the female sexual cycle
24. Pregnancy, parturition and lactation
25. Thyroid hormones: synthesis and physiological actions
26. Thyroid hormones: regulation of secretion
Week 8.
Lecture
27. Endocrine function of adrenal cortex
28. Effects of glucocorticoid hormones
29. Hormones of the adrenal medulla
30. Endocrine control of the intermediary metabolism

Week 9.
Lecture
31. Synthesis, secretion and actions of pancreatic hor- 32. Endocrine control of blood glucose level CHAPTER 7
34. Preparation for laboratory practices Study of summation of contractions: staircase phenome- Study of the twitch-potentiating effect of caffeine Comparison of contractile parameters of fast and slow The material discussed in the frame of the seminars
Computer simulation of the Frank-Starling law
follows the schedule of the lectures.
Block III.
Program of Physiology Practices
1st semester
Examination of the motor functions, sensory functions
and coordination
Study of respiratory functions in humans
Determination of respiratory volumes and dynamic ca- Computer aided acquisition and processing of biologi-
cal signals
Measurement of oxygen consumption and determination Calibration of the mechanoelectrical transducer Effect of exercise on respiratory parameters and oxygen Computer simulation of cardiac action potential
Experiments on in situ frog heart
Block II.
Study of cardiovascular functions in humans
The effect of the altered temperature on the cardiac activ- Demonstration of the summation phenomenon Effects of exercise on the ECG and blood pressure The effect of vagal activity on the cardiac function Examination of the cranial nerves
Computer simulation of the humoral regulation of in-
Examination of olfaction, discrimination of tastes, deter- testinal smooth muscle
mination of the visual acuity and visual fields, ophthalmo- scopy, reactions of pupils to light, accommodation and convergence reactions, examination of ocular movements, motor functions of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves, There is no practice in the second term. The topics within one block are performed simultaneously by subgroups of students according to a specific schedule. This practical Experiments on frog skeletal muscle
Determination of stimulus threshold and supramaximal program is complete with additional remedial and closing Requirements in Physiology
1. Signature of Lecture Book
Attendance at lectures, laboratory practices and seminars is compulsory. The signature of the Lecture Book may be re-
fused for the semester in the cases of absences from more than two practices; as well as in the cases of absences from
more than five (first semester) or more than four (second semester) seminars. If the number of lecture absences exceeds
the limit defined at the beginning of the academic year, all the examination related special advantages are withdrawn.
Completion of all topic sheets in the Exercise Book, each verified by the signature of the teacher, is also a precondition of
the signature. The Exercise Book must be preserved by the student until the final exam. In the cases of absences (not
more than twice) or failure, the missing practice must be completed during a remedial lab. Each student must attend semi-
nars and practices by joining to that particular group which is specified by the Admission Office.
2. Evaluation during the semester
The knowledge of students will be tested 2-3 times per semester using a written test system (mid-semester tests). Participa-
tion is compulsory, the results of these tests are recorded and will be presented to the examiner during the final exam. At
the end of the first semester one test can be repeated. In this case the result of the remedial test will be considered to cal-
culate the average score of the student.
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
Practical knowledge of the students will be tested at the end of the first semester in the frame of the Closing Labs. The detailed list of topics will be specified prior to the Closing Lab. Students are expected to perform manually the given ex-
periment and must also be familiar with theoretical background. The Exercise Book (with all topics verified) must be pre-
sented upon request. Results of the mid-semester tests and of the Closing Lab, (which may be either positive or negative)
will be presented to the examiner during the final exam. In the case of a negative result, the Closing Lab can be repeated,
but only once.
3. Examination
At the end of the first semester students will be examined (end-semester exam, ESE: oral exam). Those students who
reach the passing limit (above 60%) considering the average score of the three mid-semester tests are exempt from the
ESE, and the score corresponding to their average result will be offered. Precondition of this is a successful Closing Lab.
If someone is not satisfied with the result, he may participate in ESE during the examination period. In this case the result
of the ESE will be considered only.
The second semester is closed by the final exam (FE), which is composed of a written test plus an oral section, cover-
ing the topics of all lectures, seminars and laboratory practices of the full academic year. Depending on the average result of the five mid-semester tests the following special advantages will be granted: If the average score of your five mid term tests (three in the first term and two in the second semester) is 80% or higher, students do not need to take the written part of the final exam, and only the oral examination will be performed. If the average score is lower than 80% but it reaches at least 70%, 10 bonus points will be added to the result of the written part of the final examination. If the average score is at least 60% but lower than 70%, 5 bonus points will be awarded. If the result of the written examination together with the bonus points does not reach the 60% limit, the students cannot take the oral examination, and the attempt will be regarded as a failed exam. Please note that all special advantages are withdrawn in the case of five or more lecture absences. These advantages are not applicable for those students who repeat the second term.
Requirements for taking Dental Physiology courses:

Physiology I.:
Detailed curriculum of Dental Physiology

Cell physiology
Membrane transport mechanisms: simple diffusion, active and passive transport. Properties of ionic channels and mobile carrier
systems, endo- and exocytosis. Transport mechanisms (reabsorption and secretion) across epithelia. Ligands (agonists and an-
tagonists) and receptors in the cell membrane. Signal transduction pathways, second messenger systems (G-proteins, cAMP
system, role of changes in the intracellular Ca2+). Diffusion potential, origin of the resting membrane potential. Ionic mechanism
of the action potential, function of fast sodium channels. Saltatory conduction. Factors influencing conduction velocity in cable-
like structures.
Blood
Properties and composition of body fluid compartments. Barriers separating the various compartments. Interactions between in-
dividual compartments. Origin and consequence of osmotic equilibrium. Definition of internal environment, homeostasis. Blood
volume, hematocrit, and sedimentation rate. Quantitative and qualitative properties of red blood cells (count, size, shape, MCH,
RCI, osmotic resistance) and their physiological importance. Definition and types of anemias. Enterohepatic circulation of bil-
iary pigments. Jaundice (types, causes, and laboratory findings). Composition of plasma. Functions of plasma proteins. Blood
types. Rules of blood transfusion. Hemostasis. Procoagulant and anticoagulant mechanisms.
Heart
Impulse generation and propagation in the heart (function of the sinus node, AV node, intraventricular conduction system, role
of gap-junctions). Properties of the ventricular action potential. Refractory periods and their physiological importance. Mecha-
nisms of arrhythmias. The electrocardiogram. Contractile properties of the heart (mechanism of contraction and relaxation,
excitation-contraction coupling). The ventricle as a pump. Correlation between the end-diastolic volume and the systolic pres-
sure. Law of Laplace, and its implications. Effects of the altered preload and afterload. The Frank-Starling law. Role of the sys-
tolic and diastolic reserve. Relationship between heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Neural pathways (sympathetic
and parasympatethic), mediators (acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine), receptors (adrenergic, cholinergic) and signal
transduction pathways involved in the regulation of the heart. Mechanisms for the positive and negative tropic effects. Effects of
extracellular ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+) on the heart. Comparison of the adaptations of denervated and innervated hearts. The role of
heart rate in the regulation of the cardiac output. The cardiac cycle. Function of cardiac valves. Heart sounds and murmurs.
Circulation
CHAPTER 7
Components and properties of the greater and lesser circulatory systems. Pressure profile and flow rate in the sequential ele-
ments of vascular bed. Relationship between pressure gradient, flow rate, and peripheral resistance. Resistances in series and in
parallel. Distribution of cardiac output at rest, possibilities for redistribution. “Windkessel function” of the aorta. Origin and
spread of pulse waves. Alteration of pulse qualities derived from changes in properties of blood vessels. Definition and calcula-
tion of pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure. Factors determining the mean arterial pressure. Methods of measuring blood
pressure. Microcirculation, properties of capillary circulation. Starling’s hypothesis. Properties of lymphatic circulation. Charac-
teristics of venous circulation. Blood reservoirs, their role in the redistribution of blood volume. Conditions resulting in edema.
Efferent mechanisms in regulation of blood pressure and in redistribution of blood volume. Components of the vascular tone
(myogenic and neurogenic). Bayliss effect and autoregulation. Relative magnitude of myogenic and neurogenic tone in various
regions of circulation. Humoral and neural vasoconstrictors and vasodilators in the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Reflex
control of cardiovascular system. Characterization of medullary vasomotor centers, their afferentations and efferentations. Pres-
sor and depressor responses. Baroreceptors localized in the high-pressure and low-pressure regions of circulation. Depressor re-
flex evoked by baroreceptors localized in carotid sinus and aortic arch, its buffer-reflex character, its role in the regulation of
mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular reactions evoked by activation of chemoreceptors. Bainbridge reflex, Goltz reflex, Loven
reflex, Cushing reflex. Cardiovascular reactions evoked by circulating catecholamines. Permissive effects of glucocorticoids
and thyroid hormones. Role of the vasoactive humoral agents (including oxygen and carbon dioxide) in the regulation of local
perfusion (humoral vasoconstrictors and dilators). Role of the endothelial cells in the regulation of vascular tone. Properties of
pulmonary circulation, defense against pulmonary edema. Phasic character of coronary circulation. Effect of tachycardia on the
blood supply of myocardium. Nutrients and oxygen requirements of myocardium. Autoregulation of coronary circulation (ef-
fects of hypoxia and adenosine). Effects of catecholamines on the coronaries. Properties of cerebral circulation. Intracranial
fluid compartments, the Monroe-Kellie doctrine. Blood-liquor, blood-brain and brain-liquor barriers. Autoregulation of cerebral
blood flow (the prominent role of carbon dioxide tension). Circulation through the splanchnic area. Portal circulation. The circu-
lation of the skin, its role in thermoregulation. Properties of blood vessels in the skeletal muscles. Mechanisms eliciting perfu-
sion during physical exercise. Role of splanchnic, renal, dermal and muscular circulation in pressor and depressor responses,
and in the redistribution of cardiac output. Definition, origin and mechanism of circulatory shock. The most frequent initiative
conditions. Compensatory reactions of the cardiovascular system, steps of the “vitious circle”.
Respiration
Mechanics of respiration. Lung volumes. Elastic properties of the lung and the chest wall, compliance. Breathing move-
ments. Changes in intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressure during respiration. Resistance of the airways. Bronchocon-
striction and bronchodilatation. Artificial respiration. Pneumothorax. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transpont in the blood,
role of hemoglobin. Factors influencing oxygen saturation of the blood. Alveolar ventilation. Composition of alveolar gas.
The anatomic and physiologic dead space. Forms of hypoxia. Neural control of breathing. Innervation of breathing mus-
cles. The physiological role of the respiratory centers, and their interaction. The Hering-Breuer inflation reflex. Pathologi-
cal breathing patterns. Chemical control of breathing. The function of central and peripheral chemoreceptors, their re-
sponses to changes in pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide tension. Mechanism of physiological regulation. Oxygen treatment.
Effects of increased barometric pressure.
Gastrointestinal functions
Mastication. Swallowing (innervation and peristalsis of the esophagus, roles of the vagal nerve, and myogenic compo-
nents). Composition and functions of the saliva. Transport processes during the primary secretion of the saliva and in the
ducts. Correlation of secretion intensity and composition of the saliva. Control of salivation (sympathetic and parasympa-
thetic mechanisms, neurotransmitters, receptors). Functions of the elements in the enteric nervous system. Secretory and
motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal hormones. Motor patterns of the stomach, small intestine, and
large intestine. Peristalsis. Defecation, vomitus, diarrhoea. Function of the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. Composition
of the gastric juice, control of secretion. Digestion. Absorption in the small intestine. Absorption outside the small intes-
tine (mouth, stomach, colon, and rectum).
Energy balance
Proteins, fats and carbohydrates as sources of energy. Basal metabolic rate. Qualitative and quantitative requirements of
food intake. Vitamins (types, sources, functions, symptoms of deficiency). Regulation of food intake (feeding and satiety
centers). Thermal balance. Mechanisms of heat production and heat loss. Core and shell temperature. The comfort zone.
Fever, antipyretic mechanisms.
Muscle
Structure of skeletal and smooth muscle, differences in their contractile properties. Function of contractile proteins. Regu-
lation of smooth muscle contraction (types, innervations, receptors, transmitters, signal transduction pathways). Mecha-
nisms involved in regulation of contractile force in skeletal muscle, motor unit, tetanus. Comparison of calcium-handling
and excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and smooth muscles. The myoneural junction (structure, function, and
pharmacology). Adaptive cardio-respiratory and metabolic changes during exercise.
ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR

Renal function and homeostasis
Significance of renal function in homeostatic regulation (isovolemia, isosmosis, isohydria, isoionia). Function of the
nephron. Quantitative aspects of renal function (clearance, extraction, transportmaximum). Mechanism and control of
gromerular filtration. Tubular transport processes (renal handling of Na+, Cl-, K+, HCO -3, H2O, and urea). Osmotic diure-
sis, water diuresis, diuretic drugs. Effects of ADH, angiotensin-II., ANF, and aldosterone. Urinary concentration and dilu-
tion, the cortico-medulary osmotic gradient. Micturition. Afferent and efferent mechanisms of osmoregulation (water bal-
ance: thirst and ADH). Defense of extracellular fluid volume (Na+-balance: aldosterone- and GFR-related mechanisms,
third factor effects, role of sympathetic nerves). Acid-base balance. Buffer systems in the body. Acid-base disturbances
with metabolic and respiratory origin. Correction of acidosis and alkalosis. K+-balance.
Calcium metabolism and bone physiology
Physiological significance of plasma Ca2+-concentration. Distribution and compartmentalization of Ca2+ in the body. Ca2+-
balance. Mechanism of intestinal Ca2+-uptake. Renal reabsorption of Ca2+, role of specific tubular segments. Phosphate
balance. The bone as a Ca2+-store. Structure of bone. Formation, destruction and remodelling of bone. Osteoblast and os-
teoclast activity – their role in bone remodelling. Regulation of calcification and decalcification of bone. Hormonal control
of bone remodelling (effects of calcitriol, parathormone and calcitonin, regulation of their secretion, involvement of other
influences). Complex endocrine control of plasma Ca2+-concentration. Clinical correlates (rickets, osteoporosis, tetany).
Endocrinology
Mechanisms of hormonal action. Regulation of hormone secretion (closed-loop feed-back systems, negative and positive feed-back, open-loop regulation). Hormone-receptor interactions, down- and up-regulation. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system. Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland. Effects of human growth hormone, role of somatomedins. Endocrine control of male reproductive functions (testosterone production and spermatogenesis). Hormonal control of the female sexual functions (effects of estrogens and progesterone, hormonal interactions during the menstrual cycle). Preg-nancy, parturition, lactation, puberty, and menopause. Hormones of the adrenal medulla (epinephrine and norepin-rephrine). Catecholamine receptors in the body (types, specific agonists and antagonists). Interactions with ephedrine and reserpine. Cardiovascular, metabolic and general effects of catecholamines. Comparison of cardiovascular effects of epi-nephrine and norepinephrine. The sympatho-adrenergic system. Alarm reaction Regulation of catecholamine secretion. Hormones of the adrenal cortex. Physiological and pharmacological (anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects) effects of glucocorticoids. Stress. Indications and risks of glucocorticoid therapy. Metabolic and cardiovascular actions of thyroid hormones (T3, T4). Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiters. Endocrine control of cellular metabolism (effects of epi- nephrine, glucagon, and insulin). Regulation of blood glucose level (the liver as a glucose buffer, role of epinephrine, glu-cagon, and insulin). Regulation of insulin secretion. Symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus, oral antidiabetics. DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE II
Year, semester: 2nd year, 1st semester
Number of classes: 30
Week 1
Week 3
Étteremben
Week 4
Utazási szokások
Week 5
Mikor utazunk Spanyolországba?
CHAPTER 7
Assessment: five grade evaluation (AW5) Evaluation: based on class contribution (50%) and on mid-course and end-course exams (50%). For the conditions for getting the lecture book signed, see the general rules and regulations of the Language Department ACADEMIC PROGRAMME FOR THE 2ND YEAR
HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE II
Year,semester: 2nd year, 2nd semester
Number of classes: 30

Week 1

Assessment: five grade evaluation (AW5) Evaluation: based on class contribution (50%) and on mid-course and end-course exams (50%). For the conditions for getting the lecture book signed, see the general rules and regulations of the Language Department

Source: http://dental.deoec.hu/upload/deoecdental/document/bulletinch7.pdf

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In re Synthroid Marketing Litigation, 264 F.3d 712 (2001) 2001-2 Trade Cases P 73,407, 51 Fed.R.Serv.3d 736District court may limit intervenors' participationin class action to privilege of appealingNos. 00–3164, 00–3183, 00–3262, 00–3285, 00–3290 to 00–3293, 00–3302, 00–3303, 01–2000. |Argued April 20, 2001. | Decided Aug. 31, 2001. Class of consumers and

Microsoft word - tratar infecciones virales escondidas en sfc clara.doc

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