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Drug education notes .cwk

1. Any chemical substance that can alter the mind or body.
B. Drug Use
1. When a drug is used properly for its intended purpose.
C. Drug Misuse
1. Occasional use of a drug beyond its intended purpose.
D. Drug Abuse
1. The repeated use of a drug beyond its intended purpose.
E. Medicines
1. Any drug used to treat an illness or injury.
F. Over The Counter Medicines (OTC)
1. A drug that does not require a doctor’s prescription to be purchase at a store.
G. Prescriptive Medicine
1. A drug that requires a doctor’s prescription to be purchase at a pharmacy.
H. Controlled Substances
1. Drug laws that regulate the selling, and production of certain drugs.
I. Prohibited Drug (Street Drugs)
1. Drugs that have no medical purpose and/or illegal drugs.
A. Medical Uses of Drugs
a) A drug that kills harmful bacteria in the body.
a) A drug that help your body develop immunity to communicable diseases.
b) Polio, small pox, mumps, measles etc.
a) A drug that acts on the nervous system to block pain.
(1) A drug that acts on the central nervous system causing a person to fall into a (2) General anesthetic are used in major surgery.
(1) A drug that blocks pain in only one part of your body.
(2) Local anesthetics are used in minor surgery.
a) A drug that relieves the symptoms of a disease rather than cure the disease itself.
b) Taking aspirin for a headache is an example.
B. Using Medicines Safely
a) The unwanted reactions of a drug used to treat a disease.
b) Examples of side effects include: upset stomach, headache, rash, sleepy, vomiting, blurred vision, dizziness, and/or a feeling of weakness.
a) A date on the drug label indicating when you should no longer use the drug.
b) Drugs can become stronger or weaker after the expiration date and should not be a) Take the medicine only for its intended purpose.
b) Take the medicine only in the direct amount.
c) Take the medicine only as often as directed.
d) Take the medicine only in the directed manner.
e) Take the medicine for as long as directed.
f) Read the “Warning” on all drug labels.
g) Avoid the “Dangers” of mixing drugs.
h) Do not engage in self medication.
A. To experiment with drugs
B. To be accepted by peer (peer pressure).
C. To celebrate a special occasion
D. Poor self image (to change bad feelings about oneself).

E. To reduce inhibitions
F. To replace unsatisfying personal relationships
G. To rebel against parents or authority figure
H. To escape problems

A. Experimental User
1. They try different drugs once or twice.
B. Occasional or Social User
1. They take drugs to have a good time with friends.
C. Regular User
1. They take drugs to maintain a drugged feeling.
D. Dependent User
1. They are addicted to drugs physically and/or psychologically.
A. Tolerance
1. The body’s ability to adapt to the presence of a drug in its systems.
B. Drug Dependence
a) A mental or emotional need for the effects of a drug.
b) When a person “thinks or feels” a drug can help solve their problems.
a) The body needs a constant supply of the drug to function normally.
a) Severe nervousness, nausea, trembling, stomach pains and muscle cramps will occur when the drug abuser does not maintain a constant supply of the drug in their body.
C. Drug Interaction
1. When two or more drugs are in the body at the same time, and the effects of each drug 2. The effects of both drugs multiply the effects of each other making the effect greater than if 3. The mixing of two or more drugs increases the risk of drug overdose.
D. Drug Overdose
1. The amount of a drug large enough to cause serious damage to the body or death.
2. The amount of a drug that can cause an overdose depends on the persons level of tolerance, VI. TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE
A. What makes a drug abuser seek help?
a) Before seeking help, a drug abuser must be faced with a major personal crisis in their life, which motivates them to seek treatment.
b) The crisis is usually directly related to the drug abuser and their drug problem.
B. Where do drug abusers get help?
a) Hospitals and drug clinics have programs to help drug abuser with their substance a) If the individual truly wants to be helped, drug free programs do work.
b) Before drug abusers can be helped, they must want to help themselves.
C. Prevention is the answer to drug abuse!
1. Drug education prevents drug abuse.
a) Learn the facts about drugs, so to understand the dangers of drug abuse.
b) Learn to make intelligent decisions about drug use and abuse.
a) Help your friends to avoid drug abuse.
a) Drug laws prevent people from abusing drugs.
a) Treatment of drug abusers allows people a second chance at a drug free life.
A. Any drug made of tobacco.
B. Surgeon General Report on Smoking and Health
1. Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of lung cancer.
2. There is a link between cigarette smoking and heart disease.
3. Smokers with cancer and heart disease are more likely to die from these diseases, than non- 4. Smokers suffer more chronic respiratory diseases and other health problems than non- C. Harmful Substances in Tobacco
a) Tars are tiny bits of solid brown sticky substances in tobacco smoke.
b) Tars build up inside the body on teeth, lungs, and breathing tubes.
c) Tars damage heart, lung and blood vessel tissues d) Tars are the primary cause of lung cancer in smoker.
e) Tars are cancer producing agents in tobacco.
a) The substance in tobacco that causes a person to become physically addicted to b) Nicotine is the primary stimulant drug in tobacco.
c) Nicotine raises blood pressure, increases heart rate, and decreases body temperature.
d) Nicotine dulls a persons appetite.
e) The after effects of nicotine can cause depressed body functions.
(1) Nicotine is the addictive stimulant drug in tobacco.
(2) Smokers will develop a tolerance of nicotine.
(3) Nicotine can cause both physical and psychological dependence.
(4) Dependent smokers will experience withdrawal symptoms of irritability, and nervousness, as well as craving a cigarette.
(5) After smoking nicotine can reach the brain in 7 seconds.
(6) Nicotine speeds up the nervous system, heart rate, and blood pressure.
a) Carbon monoxide is a gas in tobacco smoke.
b) Carbon monoxide reduces the bodies supply of oxygen thus placing a greater stress D. How does smoking effect the body
e) Lining of Nose, Throat, and Mouth is irritated.
f) Headaches, Dizziness, and Upset Stomach.
(1) Nicotine narrows the blood vessels, which raises blood pressure and reduces supply of oxygen to the heart, which increases the risk of heart attack.
(1) A dangerous chemicals in tobacco smoke.
(2) Decreases the amount of oxygen the blood is capable of carrying.
(3) Vital body organs are robbed of needed oxygen.
(4) In time this may cause damage to the heart, blood vessels and other organs.
(5) Carbon monoxide is especially harmful to those already suffering from heart (6) Short term exposures to the carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke can be (1) A hair like structure in the air passage ways(2) Cilia sweep dust, mucous and other particles from the air passages.
(3) Nicotine and carbon monoxide will paralyze the cilia causing mucous membranes to swell and secrete even more mucous.
(4) This paralysis of the cilia will cause a person to cough-up the mucous stuck (5) Smokers suffer from more respiratory diseases than non smokers.
(1) Chronic Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, making (2) Continued smoking makes the bronchitis worst.
(1) Mucus blocks breathing tubes and traps air in the air sacs and causing the (2) Scar tissue forms one large air sac out of several tiny air sacs.
(3) The lungs are then less capable of passing oxygen into the blood of their (4) Person’s with Emphysema tire easily and physical activity is difficult.
(5) Emphysema is most often caused by smoking cigarettes.
(6) Their is no cure for emphysema.
(1) Chemicals in tars may change cells in the respiratory system from normal (2) Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer.
a) Mainstream smoke is directly inhaled from a cigarette.
(1) Mainstream smoke carries all the tars and nicotine and other dangerous b) Sidestream smoke is the smoke that pollutes the air.
(1) Non smokers in a smoke filled room will inhale sidestream smoke and unwillingly become “Passive smokers”.
c) Sidestream smoke contains the same substances as mainstream smoke but in greater (1) Twice as much tars and nicotine.
(2) 3 times as much benzopyrene and carbon monoxide.
(3) 70 times as much ammonia.
A. Any drug made of Alcohol.
B. Types of Alcohol
a) Paint thinner, varnish and shellac are very poisonous C. Ethyl Alcohol
a) Slows down the activity of the body’s functions.
(1) People who drink no more than 1 drink daily may reduce risk of heart (1) People who drink large amounts of alcohol daily may damage their heart.
a) A strong psychological and physical dependence can develop from abusing alcohol in large amounts on a regular basis.
4. Alcohol is a powerful drug and able to cause a person to have a coma or die from alcohol a) About 95,000 deaths occur every year that are caused by alcoholism or alcohol b) Alcohol abuse is a major drug problem.
D. Alcohol Production
a) The process by which alcohol is formed.
(1) Yeast acts on the sugar in cider to chemically break it down into alcohol and (2) All alcohol beverages are made by fermentation.
(3) Wines are made from fermented grapes, fruits, or berry juices.
(4) Beers are made from fermented malt barely.
(5) Corn, wheat, and potatoes are also used to produce alcohol.
c) Hard liquors have between 40 to 100% alcohol (2) They all have the same amount of alcohol.
(3) Alcohol whether consumed in beer, wine or hard liquor affects the nervous (a) A person can get just as drunk drinking beer as they can on drinking (4) The term “proof” means twice the percent of alcohol.
E. Blood Alcohol Content (BAC)
1. BAC is a measure of alcohol content in the blood stream per 100 mg of blood.
a) The higher the BAC the more powerful effect alcohol has on the mind and body.
a) BAC of .08 is the legal intoxication level.
F. What happens when a person drinks?
a) Lose control of coordination and speech.
b) Reduces inhibitions and heightens emotional responses to anger or sadness.
c) Impairs a persons clear thinking and judgment.
a) Everybody has a different body chemistry and reacts differently to alcohol.
b) Alcohol can have stronger effects on people who have not eaten or are tired or c) Social situations can effect how people react to alcohol.
a) Combining alcohol with other drugs increases the effects of these drugs.
b) Never mix alcohol with other drugs.
G. How does alcohol affect the body
a) As alcohol reaches the brain, it immediately begins to affect the brain’s ability to control behavior and body functions.
(1) A “BAC” of 0.08 percent is considered legally drunk and affects the (a) Alcohol first effect the brain centers that control intelligence, good judgment, perception, motor ability, and reaction time.
(b) A person becomes more talkative and less inhibited because the emotional centers of the brain are relaxed.
(2) A “BAC” of 0.2 percent impairs a person’s memory, ability to think clearly, and simple movements such as walking become difficult.
(3) A “BAC” of 0.3 percent throws the body into a complete state of confusion, seriously affecting the sense organs.
(a) Speech is slurred, vision is blurred, hearing is impaired, and moods can change suddenly and become exaggerated.
(b) A person can not walk normally and distances are difficult to judge.
(4) A “BAC” of 0.4 percent causes the brain to barely function and the nervous (a) The body is unable to walk or stand and the mind is almost (b) Vomiting or uncontrolled urination may occur.
(5) A “BAC” of 0.5 percent causes a person to slip into a deep coma.
(a) The rate of breathing, heart action, and blood pressure are decreased.
(b) The brain loses its ability to control the body temperature.
(c) The breathing centers of the brain become paralyzed, death can and (1) Oxidation is process that converts alcohol into water and carbon dioxide.
(2) Oxidation occurs in the liver.
(3) The liver breaks down alcohol in the blood at a rate of 0.5 to 1 ounce per (4) Nothing can speed up the process of oxidation.
(1) As alcohol is oxidized the “BAC” is lowered and the sobering process (2) Nothing can speed up the sobering process.
(a) Not coffee, cold showers or exercise.
(a) Symptoms of a hangover include headaches, extreme fatigue, nausea as well as anxiety, guilt, and depression.
(b) Cure for hangover includes time, rest, and solid food.
(a) Alcohol can interfere with the liver’s ability to break down fats.
(c) The fatty liver condition is usually reversed when drinking is (d) 75% of all alcoholics have a fatty liver condition.
(a) Heavy alcohol use destroys normal liver tissues and replaces them (b) This decreases blood and functioning of the liver.
(c) Progressive cirrhosis can cause death.
(d) Alcoholism is the main cause of cirrhosis.
H. Alcohol and Society
a) Alcohol is involved in more than 50% of all traffic accidents.
b) More than half of the fatal accidents are alcohol related.
(1) 80% of fire deaths(2) 65% of drowning deaths(3) 70% of fatal falls(4) 40% of deaths on the job c) Alcohol is a factor in an estimated 80% of all suicides.
a) Alcohol reduces a person’s self control and clouds their judgment.
(1) 55% of all arrest are alcohol related.
a) One out of four families are seriously affected by alcohol.
b) 60% of all child abuse cases are alcohol related.
I. Alcoholism -”The Disease”
a) Social drinkers enjoy drinking small amounts at home or on social occasions.
b) Problem drinkers are mentally dependent on alcohol.
(1) Not all problem drinkers are alcoholic.
(2) Sometimes problem drinkers can control their drinking if the situation c) Alcoholics drink beyond reasonable limits no matter how this behavior hurts (1) Alcoholics cannot control their drinking regardless of the situation.
a) A chronic, progressive and sometime fatal disease that requires professional b) Alcoholism is marked by drug tolerance, physical and psychological dependence, and disease like changes in body organs.
c) All of these problems are directly related to excessive and uncontrollable drinking d) Alcoholism can shorten a person life by as much as 10-15 years.
a) Anyone who drinks alcohol can become an alcoholic, regardless of race, age, a) Alcoholics cannot control their drinking habits.
(1) No one knows for sure why alcoholics cannot control their drinking.
(2) It maybe social, personal, hereditary, or body chemistry.
5. High Risk Groups for becoming an Alcoholic! a) Persons who begin drinking as teenagers.
d) Anyone who drinks alcohol runs the risk of becoming an alcoholic.
e) 1 out of 10 drinkers becomes an alcoholic.
a) Alcoholics have trouble carrying out duties at home, school, and work.
(1) Late to work, or absent from work more than normal.
(2) Alcoholics are often fired from their jobs because of excessive absences or b) Money problems are common with alcoholics because of more medical bills, repair bills, cost of alcohol, and/or lost of their job.
c) Alcoholism is considered to be a family problem or disease.
(1) The alcoholic’s behavior affects all family members and can cause family 7. What are the signs and stages of Alcoholism? (1) Tolerance for alcohol increases.
(2) The alcoholic makes promises to quit drinking but cannot keep their (3) Personality change is noticeable (cross or forgetful)(4) The alcoholic will experience blackouts.
(5) The alcoholic drinks to escape problems.
(6) Alcoholic Cycle (7) Drinking - Isolation - Guilt - More Drinking (1) Drinking starts in the morning or when the drinker is alone.
(2) Tolerance for alcohol build even further.
(3) Drinking becomes an important daily event(4) Performance on the job, school, or at home decreases.
(5) The alcoholic denies or hides the addiction.
(1) The alcoholics drinking is clearly visible and uncontrolled.
(2) Work is no longer possible.
(3) Family life falls apart.
(4) The alcoholic becomes isolated from family and friends.
(5) The changes in personality are severe: tense, cross, and distrustful of people (6) The alcoholic lives on an alcohol diet and does not eat properly.
(a) Alcoholic lose their appetite and do not eat enough of the right food.
(b) Alcohol has no nutritional value.
(c) Alcohol absorbs certain vitamins from food, thus taking away the nutritional value of the food they eat.
(1) When an alcoholic stops drinking they may have severe withdrawal (a) Trembling of the body and hallucinations occurs (b) In rare cases, convulsions and death occurs.
(a) Alcohol psychosis is an acute form of mental illness caused by i) Toxic Effect of alcohol on nerve tissue, which may ii) Deficiency of ‘B’ complex vitamins essential for normal (c) Alcohol Psychosis causes confusion, loss of memory, and J. Treatment of Alcoholism
a) Help alcoholics find a treatment center.
2. Alcoholism cannot be cured, but it can be arrested.
a) An alcoholic is an alcoholic for life.
(1) Dry alcoholic is an alcoholic who no longer drinks.
(2) Wet alcoholic is an alcoholic who drinks.
b) Hospitalization may be necessary to treat the alcoholic.
(1) Detoxification from alcohol(2) Medical treatment for malnutrition, liver disease and any other health (3) Counseling the alcoholic about their problem.
(4) Regulation of Diet and vitamin supplements.
(5) Medication on antabuse maybe used to prevent future drinking problems.
a) “AA” is an organization of men and women working together to help each other to (1) No membership dues(2) No Rules(3) Become a member by attending a meeting and admitting that you are a a) Alanon is for family members, relatives, employers, or anyone close to the alcoholic.
b) Alanon helps family members and close friends to understand the alcoholics a) Alateen is for teenagers who live with alcoholics.
b) Alateen teaches teenagers how to cope with the problems caused by the alcoholics IX. MARIJUANA
A. “Cannabis Sativa”
1. The botanical name for the marijuana plant.
2. Marijuana grows wild in many different climates.
3. Marijuana has been used as a drug for several centuries.
B. Marijuana the Drug
b) THC is the mind altering substance in marijuana.
2. Dried leaves and flowers of the marijuana plant are crushed and then used in a pipe or rolled 3. Powered forms of marijuana are sniffed or taken with food.
4. Hashish is a concentrated form of marijuana.
5. Hash Oil is concentrated liquid extract made from marijuana.
C. Marijuana Side Effects
a) Side effects of low dose of marijuana is similar to being drunk.
b) Distorts a persons sense of taste, touch, vision, hearing, and smelling.
c) Lowers body temperature and increases heart rate.
d) After using marijuana users will crave for food.
a) Using marijuana on a regular basis and in large quantity can lead to moodiness and b) Using high doses of marijuana can cause a feeling of intense fear and anxiety D. “Burn Out”
1. A term used to describe a person who has used marijuana heavily over a long period of a) Users suffering from burn out are confused and their thinking processes are slow.
b) After several week of not using marijuana, the mental state of the burned out user will improve, but it may never be back to 100%.
E. The Dangers of Marijuana
1. Small amounts of marijuana are retained in the body for months after using the drug.
2. Marijuana disrupts the reproductive system a) Marijuana will damage sperm cells and lower a man’s sperm count.
b) Marijuana will make the females menstrual cycle irregular.
c) When used by a pregnant women marijuana can cause mental retardation of their 3. Marijuana has 70% more “tars” than tobacco.
F. Dependence on Marijuana
1. Psychological and physical dependence often develops from using marijuana on a regular G. Medical Research on Marijuana as a medicine
1. Research has shown that THC and other chemicals in marijuana have potential medical use.
a) Research has shown THC is able to protect against the nausea and vomiting b) THC has also shown to reduce pressure in the eye.
2. Doctors are concerned about using THC because of the possible dangers that THC may have on a person’s health, in the long term.
A. Any drug that is made from the opium poppy is called a Narcotic drug.
1. Narcotics are also called “opiates”.
a) Narcotics are can be injected into a vein, sniffed, smoked or taken orally.
B. Legal use of Narcotic Drugs
1. Medicines that relieve pain, suppress coughs, and treat diarrhea and other intestinal C. Narcotic Side Effects
1. Depresses the central nervous system and creates a short term sense of elation.
2. Narcotics induce drowsiness and sleep.
3. Narcotics decrease physical activity and visual ability.
a) Narcotics causes a stupor or unconsciousness that will last for several hours.
4. Narcotics tolerance grows quickly and a strong physical and psychological dependence will a) Narcotics abusers will go through very strong withdrawal symptoms when they stop b) A narcotics overdose can cause death.
D. Narcotic Drugs Include:
a) Heroin is a very strong and dangerous pain reliever.
(1) High risk of heroin overdose and death from using heroin.
a) Morphine is a strong pain reliever.
b) Morphine is used to reliever pain during and after surgery.
a) Codeine is a mild pain reliever that also stops coughing.
b) Some cough medicines have codeine as an ingredient.
c) Doctors will prescribe codeine for relief of minor pain.
(1) Codeine is usually prescribed in a pill form.
a) Methadone is used to relieve pain and to treat heroin addiction.
A. Any drug that speeds up the functions of the body or mind.
B. Amphetamines
1. Amphetamines are strong chemical stimulants.
2. All amphetamines stimulate or speed up the functions of the body and mind.
3. Regular use of amphetamines can damage a person’s physical and mental health.
a) Amphetamines make people feel active, and energetic at first, followed by depression b) Heavy amphetamine users may become fearful and mistrustful of others, for no c) Heavy amphetamine users may develop violent behavior.
d) Amphetamines can produce a strong psychological dependence and tolerance to the a) Overdose of amphetamines can cause collapse of the circulatory system and death.
C. Cocaine
1. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca plant.
2. Cocaine is a very strong stimulant drug a) Cocaine will speed up the nervous system.
3. Cocaine Tolerance develops very quickly.
a) Cocaine is very addictive and can develop both a strong psychological and physical a) Cocaine is usually sniffed or snorted, but can be smoked, injected or taken alone.
b) Cocaine is more dangerous when smoked or injected than if sniffed.
6. After the effects of cocaine wear off there is a feeling of exhaustion, depression and XII. DEPRESSANTS DRUGS
A. Any drug that slows down the functions of the body or mind.
B. Barbiturates
1. Barbiturates are prescribed by doctors to help people sleep.
2. Barbiturate Abuse a) Barbiturate abusers can develop both psychological and physical dependence.
(1) Confusion(2) Slurred speech(3) Staggered walk (4) Deep sleep(5) Slow reaction time(6) Distorted vision(7) After the effects of barbiturates wear off the user will experience a deep depression, tired feeling, hopeless and suicidal.
3. Barbiturates are the leading cause of drug related death and they are responsible for alot of a) The mixing of barbiturates with alcohol can cause death.
(1) “Never mix barbiturates and alcohol”! C. Tranquilizers
1. Medically prescribed for anxiety, and other psychological problems.
2. Name of some common tranquilizer include: 3. Tranquilizers can cause psychological and physical dependence.
4. Tranquilizer Abuse a) Abusing tranquilizers can cause a person to experience: (1) Blurred vision(2) Skin rash(3) Muscle spasms(4) Death D. Methaqualone
1. You can develop both physical and psychological dependence.
2. Withdrawal sickness from methaqualone is similar to barbiturate withdrawal.
3. “Luding Out” a) The mixing of methaqualone with alcohol can cause death.
A. Any drug that causes a person to have hallucinations.
1. Hallucinogenic drugs are also known as psychedelic drugs.
a) LSD - Lysergic Acid Diethylamide - “Acid” b) PCP - Phencyclidine - “Angel Dust” B. “Trip”
1. The hallucination is called a “Trip”.
2. A trip may be very pleasant or very fearful.
3. A”Trip” can last for 4 - 10 hours or in some cases for several days.
C. The Effects of using Hallucinogenic Drugs
1. Hallucinogenics are very powerful drug.
2. A person can develop a tolerance to hallucinogenic drugs very quickly.
3. Hallucinogenics can be smoked, snorted, injected or taken orally in a pill form4. Hallucinogenics Side Effects a) The side effects of Hallucinogenics are unpredictable.
(1) Increase in heart rate, rise in blood pressure(2) Chills, fever, trembling(3) Lost of appetite, nausea(4) Confusion in the brain sensory area.
(5) Anxiety, depression, and a lost sense of reality .
(6) Paranoid schizophrenia may develop.
(7) May produce a state similar to drunkenness in one person and may cause another person to become very depressed, paranoid, hallucinate, violent and/or suicidal.
b) Flashback trips may occur days, weeks, or months after taking the drug.
c) Panic may occur when the user realizes that the hallucinations cannot be stopped REFERENCES
• Otto, James H. Modern Health, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Publishers. 1987.


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