W01 Introduction to search methods for health economics studies
Exercise: Identifying economic evaluations using HEED
Imagine you are conducting a Cochrane review of Pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes
mellitus. You have decided to incorporate evidence on resource use, costs and cost-
effectiveness into the review, and therefore wish to search for relevant economic
Read the background information below, then conduct compound searches for
relevant economic evaluation studies using HEED, and use the results of your search
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is mainly characterised by a reduced ability of the hormone
insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in body fat and muscles (insulin resistance) and
affects most people suffering from diabetes. Several glucose-lowering medications
are on the market to treat diabetes, amongst them pioglitazone. Pioglitazone is a
thiazolidinedione (a class of oral antidiabetic medication), which is most often used
to treat type 2 diabetes in its initial stages if lifestyle modifications (e.g. diet and
exercise) have failed. Patients may receive pioglitazone in combination with other
oral antidiabetic medication, insulin, and/or lifestyle modifications. Other oral
antidiabetic medications include rosiglitazone and metformin.
Types of studies • Cost-effectiveness analyses • Cost-utility analyses • Cost-benefit analyses • Cost analyses
Types of interventions • Pioglitazone versus placebo. • Pioglitazone versus rosiglitazone or metformin (possibly with other combination
• Pioglitazone in combination with rosiglitazone, metformin or insulin (possibly
with other combination treatments) versus any other combination of
rosiglitazone, metformin or insulin (possibly with other combination treatments).
Search hints • Experiment with use of different HEED search terms to locate economic
evaluations of pioglitazone that meet the above criteria for ‘Types of studies’ and
‘Types of interventions’. How does use of different search terms impact on the
• Use the asterix (*) to truncate free-text search terms in the ‘Abstract’ or ‘All data’
search fields (e.g. pioglitazon* OR thiazolidinedion*).
• ATC classifications: the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification
system is used for the classification of drugs. It divides drugs into different
groups according to the organ or system on which they act and/or their
therapeutic and chemical characteristics. The ATC classifications for drugs used
in diabetes are A10A (‘Insulins and analogues’), A10B (‘Blood glucose lowering
drugs, excl. insulins’) and A10X (‘Other drugs used in diabetes’).
• ICD-9 classifications: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and
Related Health Problems (ICD) is the international standard diagnostic
classification system used to classify diseases and other health conditions. The
ICD-9 classification for diabetes mellitus is 250.
• Experiment with using the browse function for the ‘Type Of Econ Eval’ search
field to limit your search to different types of economic evaluation.
1. Once you have tried a few different combinations of search terms, select
your preferred search and write it down. Why did you select your preferred
2. In the study ‘Economic evaluation of pioglitazone hydrochloride in the
management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Canada’ (Coyle et al, 2002):
a. What type of economic evaluation is used?
b. What is the discounted incremental cost per life-year gained of a first-
line pioglitazone-based strategy compared with metformin?
3. How many articles report a cost-utility analysis that meets inclusion criteria
for ‘Types of interventions’? (For each article you identify, please note down
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyethylene-Octene Elastomer/Clay/Biodegradable Starch Nanocomposites Hsin-Tzu Liao, Chin-San Wu Department of Biochemical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Environmental Polymer Materials, Kao Yuan Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan 82101, Republic of China Received 20 April 2004; accepted 10 December 2004DOI 10.1002/app.21763Publish
Breytingar á lögum um atvinnuleysistryggingar Frumvarp vinnuhóps um atvinnuleysistryggingar og niðurstaða Alþingis 18. desember. 18. desember sl. afgreiddi Alþingi breytingar á lögum um atvinnuleysistryggingar. Í þeim felast nokkrar réttarbætur, en einnig þrengingar á réttindum atvinnuleitenda til atvinnuleysisbóta. Þessar breytingar eru aðeins að nokkru leyti í samræmi