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Leadership In Organizations
(5th Edition)

Opbygningen af referatet:
Kapitlerne i bogen afsluttes med et referat. Disse referater er nedenstående gengivet ved at opdele disse i kapitlernes hovedafsnit. Eksempel; Den del af referatet af kapitel 1 der omhandler afsnit 1 - “Definitions of Leadership” - er gengivet under denne overskrift, ligesom tilhørende tabeller og figurer. Chapter 1: Introduction: The Nature of Leadership (p. 1-20)
Definitions of Leadership
Leadership has been defined in many different ways, but most definitions share the
assumption that it involves an influence process concerned with facilitating the performance of a collective task. Otherwise, the definitions differ in many respects, such as who exerts the influence, the intended beneficiary of the influence, the manner in which the influence is exerted, and the outcome of the influence attempt. Some theorists have advocated the leading and managing should be treated as separate roles or processes, but the proposed definitions do not resolve important questions about the scope of each process and how they are interrelated. There is no “correct” definition; it is only a matter of how useful it is increasing our understanding of effective leadership. Table 1-1, p. 3 – Definitions of Leadership Table 1-2, p. 7 – Scope of Leadership Processes Leadership vs. Management (p. 5); “Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who de the right thing.”
Leadership Effectiveness
Most researchers evaluate leadership effectiveness in terms of the consequences of the
leader’s actions for followers and other organization stakeholders, but the choice of outcome variables has differed considerably from researcher to researcher. Criteria differ in many important respects, including how immediate they are and whether they have subjective or objective measures. Criteria that are negatively correlated are especially troublesome because of the complex trade-offs among them. When evaluating leadership effectiveness, multiple criteria should be considered to deal with these complexities and the different preferences of various stakeholders. Figure 1-1, p. 10 – Causal Chain of Effects from Two Types of Leader Behavior
Overview of Major Research Approaches
Leadership has been studied in different ways, depending on the researcher’s methodological
preferences and definition on leadership. Most researchers deal only with one narrow aspect of leadership, and as a result, most of the studies fall into distinct lines of research. The various lines of research include leader traits, behavior, power and influence, and situational approaches. In recent years there has been an increased effort to cut across and integrate these approaches. The best example is some of the research on charismatic leadership. Table 1-3, p. – 11 – Key Variables Included in Leadership Theories Figure 1-2, p. 11 – Causal Relationships Among the Primary Types of Leadership Variables
Level of Conceptualization for Leadership
Level of analysis is another basis for classifying leadership theory and research. The levels include intra-individual, dyadic, group, and organizational. Each level provides some unique insights, but more research is needed on ground and organizational processes, and more integration across levels is needed.
Figure 1-3, p. 14 – Levels of Conceptualization for Leadership Processes
Other Basis for Comparing Leadership Theories
Another basis for differentiating theories is the relative focus on leader or follower. For many
years the research focused on leader characteristics, and followers were studied only as the object of leader influence. A more balanced approach is needed, and some progress is being made in that direction. Leadership theories can be classified as prescriptive versus descriptive, according to the emphasis on “what should be” rather than on “what occurs now”. A final basis for differentiation (universal versus contingency) is the extent to which a theory describes leadership processes and relationships that are essentially the same in all situations rather than ones that vary in specified ways across situations. Chapter 2: The Nature of Managerial Work (p. 21-48)
Typical Activity Patterns in Managerial Work

The descriptive research found that managerial work is inherently hectic, varied, fragmented, reactive, disorderly, and political. Brief oral interactions predominate, and many of these involve people outside the manager’s immediate work unit and chain of command. Decision processes are highly political, and most planning is informal and adaptive. This activity pattern occurs, in part, because managers face several dilemmas. To carry out their responsibilities, managers need to obtain recent, relevant information that exists only in the heart of people who are widely scattered within and outside the organization; they need decisions based on information that is both overwhelming and incomplete; and they need to get cooperation from people over whom they have no formal authority. Figure 2-1, p. 24 – A Manager’s Network of Contacts
The Content of Managerial Work
Identifying meaningful and widely applicable categories to describe the content of managerial
work has been a problem for a long time. One approach is the taxonomy of managerial roles proposed by Mintzberg. Another approach is represented by job description research that asks managers to rate the importance activities and responsibilities for their jobs. Table 2-1, p. 28 – Managerial Position Duties and Responsibilities Table 2-2, p. 29 – Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
A Theory of Demands, Constraints (bundethed), and Choices
Some of the descriptive research has examined differences in behavior related to aspects of the managerial situation. Stewart identified several situational influences on leader behavior. The pattern of interactions with subordinates, peers superiors, and outsiders is affected by a manager’s dependency on these people and by the demands they make on a manager. The type of work pattern depends on the nature of the work itself: self-generating or responding, repetitive or variable, uncertain or predictable, fragmented or sustained, and subject to tight deadlines or relatively unhurried.
Research on Situational Determinants
Comparative research on managers in different situations reveals several other aspects of the situation that affect managerial behavior, including level of management, size of the organizational life cycle. Managerial work is being altered by sweeping societal trends such as globalization, workforce diversity, the pace of technological change, and the emergence of new forms of organizations.
Changes in the Nature of Managerial Work/How Much Discretion Do Managers Have?
Despite all the demands and constraints a manager faces, some choice of behavior remains.
Even managers in similar positions define their roles differently. There are choices in what
aspects of the job to emphasize, how to allocate one’s time, and with whom to spend it. Managers will be more effective if they understand the demands and constraints in their job situation and work to expand their choices. Finally, effective managers are more proactive in their behavior, and even when reacting to unforeseen events, their behavior more closely reflects their objectives and priorities.
Limitations of the Descriptive Research/Applications for Managers
In general, the descriptive research suggests that managerial work includes four general types
of activities: (1) building and maintaining relationships, (2) getting and giving information, (3)
decision making, and (4) influencing people. The next chapter examines leadership behavior embedded in these activities or occurring in conjunction with them. Figure 2-2, p. 41 – Four Primary Processes in Managing Table 2-3, p. 41 – Guidelines for Performing Managerial Work Chapter 3: Perspectives on Effective Leadership Behavior (p.49-79)
The Ohio State Leadership Studies/The Michigan Leadership Studies/Limitations of
Survey Research/Experiments on Task and Relations Behavior/Research Using

Critical Incidents/The High-High Leader
From the 1950s to the mid-1980s, research on leader behavior was dominated by a focus on
two broadly defined categories or behavior. Most studies of leadership behavior during this period used questionnaires measuring leader consideration and initiating structure. Hundreds of studies were conducted to see how these behaviors were correlated with criteria of leadership effectiveness such as subordinate satisfaction and performance. Results from this massive research effort have been mostly weak and inconclusive. However, the overall pattern of results suggests that effective leaders show a dual concern for task and relationships in their day-to-day pattern of behavior. Figure 3-1, p. 51 – Relation between Consideration and Turnover Rate Figure 3-2, p. 52 – Relation between Initiating Structure and Turnover Rate Figure 3-3, p. Possible Causes of a Correlation between Leader Behavior and Criterion Variable
Leadership Behavior Taxonomies(=klassifikationssystem)
Several taxonomies have been proposed for describing specific types of leadership behavior.
Differences among the taxonomies can be explained in part as a result of differences in purpose, level of abstraction, and method of development. However, the differences in category labels tend to obscure a considerable amount of convergence in behavior content. Table 3-1, p. 62 – Overview of Behavior Taxonomies Table 3-2, p. 63 – Examples of Behaviors at Different Levels of Abstraction Table 3-3, p. 64 – Definition of the Managerial Practices Figure 3-4, p. 65 – Two Alternative Conceptions of Task, Relations, and Change-Oriented Behavior
Table 3-4, p. 66 – Examples of Task-, Relations-, and Change-Oriented Behavior
Specific Task Behaviors
Planning, clarifying, and monitoring are key task-oriented behaviors that jointly affect
subordinate performance. Planning involves deciding about objectives, priorities, strategies,
allocation of resources, assignment of responsibilities, scheduling of activities, and allocation of the manager’s own time. Clarifying includes assigning tasks, explaining job responsibilities, explaining rules and procedures, communicating priorities, setting specific performance goals and deadlines, and giving instructions in how to do a task. Monitoring involves getting information needed to evaluate the operations of the work unit and the performance of individual subordinates.
Table 3-5, p. 67 – Guidelines for Action Planning
Table 3-6, p. 68 – Guidelines for Clarifying Roles and Objectives
Table 3-7, p. 69 – Guidelines for Monitoring Operations
Specific Relations Behaviors
Supporting, developing, and recognizing are key relations-oriented behaviors. Supporting
includes a wide range of behaviors by which a managers shows consideration, acceptance, and concern for someone’s needs and feelings. A manager who is considerate and friendly toward people is more likely to win their friendship and loyalty. Developing includes behavior that is intended to increase job-relevant skills and facilities a person’s job adjustment and career advancement. Examples include coaching, mentoring, and career counseling. Recognizing involves giving praise and showing appreciation to others for effective performance, significant achievements, and important contributions to the organization. Recognizing helps to strengthen desirable behavior, improve interpersonal relationships, and increase job satisfaction. Table 3-8, p. 70 – Guidelines for Supporting Table 3-9, p. 71 – Guidelines for Coaching Table 3-10, p. 72 – Guidelines for Mentoring Table 3-11, p. 72 – Guidelines for Recognizing Chapter 4: Participative Leadership, Delegation and Empowerment (p. 80-114)
Nature of Participative Leadership/Consequences of Participation
Participative leadership involves efforts by a manager to encourage and facilitate participation
by others in making decisions that would otherwise be made by the manager alone. Participation can take many forms, ranging from revising a tentative decision after receiving protests, to asking for suggestions before making a decision, to asking an individual or group to jointly make a decision, to allowing others to make a decision is often necessary for getting decisions approved and implemented in organizations. However, even when it is not necessary to consult with others before making a decision, a manager may still prefer to do so in order to obtain the benefits of participation. Potential benefits of participation include better decisions and greater acceptance of decisions by people who will implement them or be affected by them. Figure 4-1, p. 82 – Continuum of Decision Procedures Figure 4-2, p. 83 – Causal Model of participative Leadership
Research on Effects of Participative Leadership
Many studies have been conducted on the outcomes of using participation, but the research evidence is not sufficiently strong and consistent of draw any firm conclusions. Lack of consistent results about the effectiveness of participative leadership probably means that various forms of participation are effective in some situations but not in others. Participation is unlikely to be effective if potential participants do not share the leader’s objectives, if they do not want to take responsibility for helping to make decisions, if they distrust the leader, or if time pressures and the dispersion of participants make it impractical to consult with individuals or hold group meetings. Group forms of participation are unlikely to be effective unless the manager has sufficient skill in managing conflict, facilitating constructive problem solving, and dealing with common process problems that occur in groups (see Chapter 11).
Normative Decision Model/Guidelines for Participative Leadership
Vroom and Yetton developed a model of participative leadership to help managers identify the appropriate decision procedures in different situations. The model examines the effects of five different decision procedures on two intervening variables (decision quality and decision acceptance) that jointly influence group performance. The situational variables are characteristics of the decision situation that determine whether a particular decision procedure will increase or decrease decision quality and acceptance. The model has been extended by Vroom and Jargo. Research on these models is limited, but it provides moderate support for them. The findings suggest that managers are likely to be more effective if they use decision procedures that are appropriate for the situation. Figure 4-3, p. 89 – Causal Relationship in the Normative Decision Model Table 4-1, p. 91 – Decision Rules in Vroom-Yetton Decision Model Figure 4-4, p. 92 – Vroom and Yetton Decision Process Flowchart
Table 4-2, p. 93 – Simplified Version of the Normative Decision Model
Table 4-3, p. 95 – Guidelines for Participative Leadership
Delegation/Guidelines for Delegating
Delegation can be regarded as a decision procedure that is qualitatively different from other
forms of participation, such as consultation and joint decision making. Delegation involves the assignment of new responsibilities and additional authority to individual subordinates or to a team. Potential benefits of delegation include better decisions, increased subordinate motivation, more satisfying jobs for subordinates, development of subordinate skills, and reduction of work overload for a manager. Lack of confidence in subordinates and desire to consolidate power prevent some managers from delegating as much as they should. Research on the consequences of using delegation is still limited, but the findings suggest that it can be very effective if the appropriate types of decisions are delegated and the delegation process itself is carried out in a competent manner. Table 4-4, p. 99 – Reasons Given by Managers for Delegating Table 4-5, p. 101 – Reasons Given by Managers for Not Delegating Table 4-6, p. 103 – Guidelines for Delegation
Psychological empowerment involves a combination of meaningful work, high self-efficacy, self-determination, and ability to influence relevant events. Leaders can affect the psychological empowerment of followers in many ways, and participative leadership and delegation are only two of the relevant behaviors. Whether an employee feels powerful or powerless also depends on aspects of the job, the organization, and the employees. Table 4-7, p. 108 – Conditions Facilitating Psychological Empowerment Table 4-8, p. 110 – Guidelines for Empowering Chapter 5: Dyadic Role-Making Theories and Followership (p. 115-140)
Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
Leader-member exchange theory describes how leaders develop different relationship over
time with different subordinates. A favorable exchange relationship is more likely when a subordinate is perceived to be competent and similar to the leader in values and attitudes. A leader’s upward influence is another important determinant of the potential for establishing a favorable exchange relationship with subordinates. The behavior of both leader and subordinate is different in favorable exchange relationships than in unfavorable exchange relationships. The exchange relationship also has implications for leadership effectiveness. Subordinate satisfaction, commitment, and performance are usually higher when the relationship is favorable. Some differentiation of exchange relationships with subordinates may be necessary, but too much can be detrimental (skadelig).
Table 5-1, p. 118 – Sample Items from the LMX-7

Leader Attributions About Subordinates (Lederegenskaber I forhold til

A manager’s reaction to mistakes or failures by a subordinate depends in part on attributions (tilskrivelsen) about the reason for poor performance. Attribution theory explains how managers interpret performance information and make judgments about the competence and motivation of a subordinate. Managers may unwittingly create a self-fulfilling prophecy in their differential perception and treatment of subordinates. For their part, subordinates can use impression management tactics to influence the leader to view them more favorably. The difficult responsibility of providing corrective feedback to a subordinate is more likely to be successful if the leader is supportive rather than hostile and encourages the subordinate to take ownership of the problem. Table 5-2, p. 124 – Guidelines for Correcting Performance Deficiencies Follower Attributions and Implicit Theories
How followers view leader competence and intentions has implications for leadership effectiveness. Followers are susceptible to the same type of attributions as leaders. A leader who takes visible actions that are followed by improvements in group performance will be viewed as more competent than one who takes no action or acts without apparent success.
Follower Contributions to Effective Leadership
Followers are more likely to be effective if they view themselves as active and independent rather than passive and dependent on the leader. Followers can play an important role in improving leadership by providing accurate information, challenging weak decisions, resisting inappropriate influence attempts, giving support and encouragement, and providing coaching and advice. Table 5-3, p. 131 – Applications: Guidelines for Followers
Self-management is a way for followers to empower themselves to be more effective as individual contributors. Self-management strategies can be used to increase confidence, spur greater effort, and manage time more effectively. One way for a leader to empower
subordinates is to encourage and facilitate their self-management activities.
Table 5-4, p. 135 – Strategies for Self-Management
Integrating Leader and Followers Roles
All leaders are also followers, and to be effective in both roles, it is essential to find a way to
integrate them. Moreover, it is essential to find appropriate ways to share leadership functions within teams, across levels of the authority hierarchy, and between interdependent subunits of the organization. We will return to this subject in later chapters of the book. Chapter 6: Power and Influence (p. 141-174)
Conceptions of Power and Authority/Power Types and Sources
Power is the capacity to influence the attitudes and behavior of people in the desired direction.
Authority is the right to influence others in specified ways, and it is an important basis for influence in formal organizations. Potential influence derived from (stammer fra) a manager’s position in the organization is called “position power”, and it includes legitimate power, reward power, coercive (fremtvinge) power, information power, and ecological power. Potential influence derived from the characteristics of the person who occupies a leadership position is called “person power”, and includes expert and referent power. Table 6-1, p. 144 – French and Raven Power Taxonomy Table 6-2, p. 145 –Different Types of Power Table 6-3, p. 146 –Guidelines for Using Legitimate Authority Table 6-4, p. 147 – Guidelines for Using Reward Power Table 6-5, p. 149 – Guidelines for Using Coercive Power to Maintain Discipline Table 6-6, p. 150 – Ways to Acquire and Maintain Referent Power Table 6-7, p. 152 – Guidelines for using Expert Power How Power Is Acquired or Lost
Social exchange theory describes the process by which individual leaders gain and lose power over time. Greater status and power is accorded to someone who demonstrates loyalty to the group and competence in solving task problems and making task decisions. Innovative proposals are a source of increased status and expert power when successful, but they result in lower status and expert power if failure occurs and it is attributed to poor judgment, irresponsibility, or pursuit of self-interest.
Consequences of Position and Personal Power
Research on the use of different forms of power by leaders suggests that effective leaders rely more on personal power than on position power. Nevertheless, position power is still important, and it interacts in complex ways with personal power to determine a leader’s influence on subordinates. As Kotter (1982) has suggested, effective leaders probably use a mix of different types of power.
How Much Power Should Leaders Have?
The amount of position power necessary for leader effectiveness depends on the nature of the organization, task, and subordinates. A leader with extensive reward and coercive power is tempted to rely on them excessively, instead of using referent and expert power. This path leads to resentment and rebellion. On the other hand, a leader lacking sufficient position power to reward competent subordinates, make necessary changes, and punish chronic troublemakers will find it difficult to develop a high-performing group or organization. The success of a manager depends greatly on the manner in which power is exercised. Effective leaders are likely to use power in a subtle, careful fashion that minimizes status differentials and avoids threats to the target person’s self-esteem. In contrast, leaders who exercise power in an arrogant, manipulative, domineering manner are likely to engender resentment and resistance.
Types of Influence Behavior/Power and Influence Behavior/Research on Influence

Power and influence behavior can be regarded as separate constructs, even though they are interrelated in complex ways. Researchers have identified several distinct influence tactics, including rational persuasion, apprising, inspirational appeals, exchange, collaboration, pressure, personal appeals, ingratiation, consultation, coalition, and legitimating tactics. Some of these tactics are generally more effective than others. What tactics are selected for an influence attempt, and the sequence in which they are used, depend on aspects of the situation. Most people may prefer to use tactics that are socially acceptable, feasible in terms of the agent’s power in relation to the target person, likely to be effective for a particular objective, and unlikely to require much time, effort, or cost. The choice of tactics is somewhat different depending on whether the target person is a subordinate, peer (ligemand), or superior. Table 6-8, p. 160 – Definition of the Proactive Influence Tactics Figure 6-1, p. 165 – Effects of Agent Power and Influence Behavior on Influence Outcomes Table 6-9, p. 167 – Summary of Results Found For Specific Influence Tactics Chapter 7: Managerial Traits and Skills (p. 175-207)
Nature of Traits (karakteregenskaber) and Skills/Early Research on Leader Traits

and Skills/Major Programs of Research on Leader Traits
The early trait studies attempted to identify physical characteristics, personality traits, and
abilities of people who were believed to be “natural leaders”. Hundreds of trait studies were conducted, but individual traits failed to correlate in a strong and consistent manner with leadership effectiveness. The early researchers did not pay much attention to the question of how traits interact as an integrator of personality and behavior, or how the situation determines the relevance of different traits and skills for leader effectiveness. In recent years, the investigation of leader traits has been productive, due to the inclusion of more relevant traits, use of better measures of traits, examination of trait patterns, and use of longitudinal research.
Table 7-1, p. 176 – Three-Category Taxonomy of Leadership Skills
Table 7-2, p. 178 – Traits and Skills Differentiating Leaders from Nonleaders
Managerial Traits and Effectiveness
Some personality traits found to be especially relevant for effectiveness include energy level and stress tolerance, self-confidence, internal control orientation, emotional maturity, and integrity. Managerial motivation is also important for effective leadership. The motive pattern characteristic of many effective managers includes a socialized power orientation, a moderately strong need for achievement, and a relatively weaker need for affiliation (tilhørsforhold).
Table 7-3, p. 184 – Traits Predicting Leadership Effectiveness
Table 7-4, p. 192 – Correspondence of the Big Five Traits with Specific Traits
Managerial Skills and Effectiveness/Other Relevant Competencies/Situational
Relevance of Skills

To be successful, a leader also needs to have considerable ability. Three general categories of skills relevant to managers are interpersonal, cognitive (tænkning/problemløsning), and technical skills. The relative priority of the three types of skills probably depends on the type of organization and level of management. The relative importance of the specific skills within each broad category also depends on the situation. Some skills such as persuasiveness, analytical ability, speaking ability, and memory for details will help a manager be successful in any situation, whereas some other skills are not easily transferred to a different type of position. Relevant competencies identified in more recent research include emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and the ability to learn and adapt to change. Figure 7-1, p. 199 – Relative Importance of Skills for Different Levels of Management
Evaluation of the Trait Research/Applications: Guidelines for Managers
The trait approach has important implications for improving managerial effectiveness.
Information about a person’s traits and skills is essential for selecting people to fill managerial positions, for identifying needs in the current job, and for planning management development activities to prepare the person for promotion to higher-level jobs. Leadership development is discussed in Chapter 13. Chapter 8: Contingency Theories of Effective Leadership (p. 208-239)
LPC Contingency Model (Modeller for Situationsbestemtledelse)
The managerial job is too complex and unpredictable to rely on a set of standardized
responses to events. Effective leaders are continuously reading the situation and evaluating
how to adapt their behavior to it. They are flexible and innovative in adapting to fluid situations and rapidly changing events. They seek to understand the task requirements, situational constraints, and interpersonal processes that determine which course of action is most likely to be successful. This chapter examined five contingency theories that prescribe different patterns of leader behavior (or traits) for different situations. The LPC (Least Preferred Co-worker) contingency model deals with the moderating influence of three situational variables on the relationship between a leader trait (LPC) and subordinate performance. According to the model, leaders with high LPC scores are more effective in moderately favorable situations, whereas leaders with low LPC scores are more favorable in situations that are either very favorable or very unfavorable. Table 8-1, p. 210 – Relationships in the LPC Contingency Model Figure 8-1, p. 211 – Causal Relationships in the LPC Contingency Model
The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
The path-goal theory of leadership examines how aspects of leader behavior influence
subordinate satisfaction and motivation. In general, leaders motivate subordinates by influencing their perceptions of the likely consequences of different levels of effort. If subordinates believe that valued outcomes can be attained only by making a serious effort and that such an effort will be successful, than they are likely to make the effort. Aspects of the situation such as the nature of the task, the work environment, and subordinate characteristics determine the optimal level of each type of leadership behavior for improving subordinate satisfaction and effort. Figure 8-2, p. 213 – Causal Relationships in Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Figure 8-3, p. 214 – Causal Relationships for Effects of Supportive Leadership on Subordinate Effort Figure 8-4, p. 215 – Causal Relationships for Effects of Directive Leadership on Subordinate Effort
Leadership Substitutes Theory
Leadership substitutes theory identifies aspects of the situation that make leadership behavior
redundant or irrelevant. Various characteristics of the subordinates, task and organization serve as substitutes for leadership and/or neutralizes of its effects. Substitutes make some types of behavior by the leader unnecessary and redundant, whereas neutralizers are constraints that prevent the leader from doing anything to improve conditions. Table 8-2, p. 217 – Specific Substitutes and Neutralizers for Supportive and Instrumental Leadership
The Multiple-Linkage Model
The multiple-linkage model describes how a leader can influence intervening variables to improve group effectiveness. The performance of a group or organizational subunit is highest when members have high task skill and motivation, they are efficiently organized, there is a high level of member cooperation, adequate resources are available, and unit activities are coordinated with those of interdependent units. These intervening variables are affected by a variety of situational variables in addition to the actions of the leader. In the short run, a leader can improve group performance by taking direct action to correct any deficiencies in the intervening variables. In the longer run, the leader can improve group performance by taking action to make the situation more favorable. These actions may involve reducing constraints, enhancing substitutes, altering the relative importance of the intervening variables, or making changes to indirectly improve the intervening variables. Figure 8-5, p. 221 – Causal Relationships in the Multiple-Linkage Model Table 8-3, p. 222 – Conditions Affecting the Intervening Variables in the Multiple-Linkage
Table 8-4, p. 225 – Some Leader Actions to Deal with Deficiencies in Intervening Variables
Cognitive Resources Theory
Cognitive resources theory examines the conditions under which cognitive resources such as
intelligence and experience are related to group performance. Situational variables, such as interpersonal stress, group support, and task complexity, determine whether a leader’s intelligence and experience enhance group performance. Directive leader behavior is an intervening variable used to explain how a leader’s cognitive resources affect group performance. Figure 8-6, p. 228 – Primary Causal Relationships in the Cognitive Resources Theory.
General Evaluation of Contingency Theories/Applications: Guidelines for Managers
Most of the contingency theories that were reviewed in this chapter were formulated en the 1970s. These theories are very complex and difficult to test. Each theory provides some insights into reasons for leadership effectiveness, but each theory also has conceptual weaknesses that limit its utility. A major limitation of the contingency theories is lack of sufficient attention to some leadership processes that transform the way followers view themselves and their work. These processes are described by the theories of transformational and charismatic leadership discussed in the next chapter. Table 8-5, p. 231 – Comparison of Contingency Theories Table 8-6, p. 232 – Some Guidelines for Contingent Leadership Chapter 9: Charismatic and Transformational Leadership (p. 240-272)
Two Early Theories/Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership/Self-Concept
Theory of Charismatic Leadership

Attributions of charisma are the result of an interactive process between leader, followers, and the situation. Charismatic leaders arouse enthusiasm and commitment in followers by articulating a compelling vision and increasing follower confidence about achieving it. Attribution of charisma to the leader is more likely if the vision and strategy for attaining it are innovative, the leader takes personal risks to promote it, and the strategy appears to be succeeding. Other relevant behaviors have also been identified, but they vary somewhat across the different theories. Some leader traits and skills such as self-confidence, strong convictions, poise (sikker fremtræden), speaking ability, and a dramatic flair increase the likelihood of attributed charisma, but more important is a context that makes the leader’s vision especially relevant to follower needs.
Other conceptions of Charisma/Consequences of charismatic leadership
Charismatic leaders can have a tremendous influence on an organization, but the
consequences are not always beneficial. Many entrepreneurs who establish a prosperous company are tyrants and egomaniacs whose actions may cause the eventual downfall of their company. The personalized power orientation of these charismatics makes them insensitive, manipulative, domineering, impulsive, and defensive. They emphasize devotion to themselves rather than to ideological goals, which are used only as a means to manipulate followers. Positive charismatics seek to instill devotion to ideological goals and are more likely to have a beneficial influence on the organization. However, the achievement culture fostered by positive charismatics may also produce some undesirable consequences if the needs of individual followers are ignored. More research is needed to discover if it is possible to achieve the positive outcomes of charismatic leadership without the negative consequences. Table 9-1, p. 246 – Comparison of Four Charismatic Theories Table 9-2, p. 251 – Some Negative Consequences of Charismatic Leaders
Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders make followers more aware of the importance and value of the work and influence followers to transcend self-interest for the sake of the organization. The leaders develop follower skills and confidence to prepare them to assume more responsibility in an empowered organization. The leaders provide support and encouragement when necessary to maintain enthusiasm and effort in the face of obstacles (hindringer), difficulties, and fatigue (træthed/udmattelse). As a result of this influence, followers feel trust and respect toward the leader, and they are motivated to do more than they originally expected to do. Table 9-3, p. 254 – Transformational and Transactional Behaviors
Research on the Theories
The empirical research relevant for the theories of transformational leadership has generally been supportive, but few studies have examined the underlying influence processes that account for the positive relationship found between leader behavior and follower performance. More research is needed to determine the conditions in which different types of transformational behavior are most relevant and the underlying influence processes that make them relevant.
Transformational Versus Charismatic Leadership/Evaluation of the
Theories/Guidelines for Transformational Leadership

The theories of transformational and charismatic leadership emphasize that emotional processes are as important as rational processes, and symbolic actions are as important as instrumental behavior. These theories provide new insights into the reasons for the success or failure of leaders, but refinement is needed to remedy some conceptual weaknesses. Most theories of transformational and charismatic leadership are conceptualized primarily at the dyadic level of analysis. To understand a leader’s long-term effect on the organization, it is also necessary to examine group and organizational level processes. Leader influence on groups and teams is discussed in Chapter 11. Leader influence on the strategy, structure, and culture of the organization are discussed in Chapter 10 and 12. Table 9-4, p. 263 – Guidelines for Transformational Leadership Chapter 10: Leading Change in Organizations (p. 273-304)
Change Processes

One of the most important and difficult leadership responsibilities is to guide and facilitate the process of making a major change in an organization. People tend to resist major change for many reasons, including distrust, doubts about the need for change, doubts about the feasibility of change, doubts that the benefits justify the costs, fear for economic loss, fear of losing status and power, fear of personal failure, perception that the change is inconsistent with values, and resentment about interference from above. Resistance should be viewed as a normal defensive response, not as a character weakness or a sign of ignorance.
Different Types of Organizational Change
The change process can be described as having different stages, such as unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. Moving too quickly through the stages can endanger the success of change effort. People typically transit through a series of emotional stages as they adjust to the need for a drastic change in their lives. Understanding each of these change processes helps leaders guide and facilitate (gøre lettere) change. It is also helpful for leaders to realize that changing attitudes and roles at the same time is more effective than changing either one alone.
Influencing Organizational Culture
Organizational culture involves assumptions, beliefs, and values that are shared by members
of a group or organization. It is much easier to embed culture in new organizations than to change the culture of mature organizations. Culture can be influenced by several aspects of a leader’s behavior, including examples set by the leader, what the leader attends to, how the leader reacts to crises, how the leader allocates rewards, and how the leader makes selection, promotion, and dismissal decisions. Supplementary mechanisms for shaping culture include the design of organization structure, management systems, facilities, formal statements of ideology, and informal stories, myths, and legends. Table 10-1, p. 280 – How Leaders Shape Culture
Developing a Vision
Before people will support radical change, they need to have a vision of a better future that is attractive enough to justify the sacrifices and hardships the change will require. To be inspiring the vision must include strong ideological content that appeals to organization members’ shared values and ideals concerning customers, employees, and the mission of the organization. The vision is usually created in a progressive, interactive process involving key
Table 10-2, p. 286 – Guidelines for Formulating a Vision
Implementing Change
A leader can do many things to facilitate the successful implementation of change. Political
actions include creating a coalition to approve change, forming teams to guide it, selecting the right people to fill key positions, making symbolic changes that affect the work, making structural changes to institutionalize change, and monitoring the progress of change to detect problems that require attention. People-oriented actions include creating a sense of urgency, preparing people for change, helping them cope with change, keeping them informed, demonstrating continued commitment to the change program, and empowering people to implement change. Table 10-3, p. 289 – Guidelines for Implementing Change
Increasing Innovation and Learning
As workforce knowledge becomes more important as a source of competitive advantage, the capacity to learn is becoming even more important to an organization. Adaptation to the environment and continuous improvement can be facilitated by creating a learning organization. A leader can increase learning and innovation in the organization by encouraging experimentation, reflection, knowledge importation, information sharing, diffusion of knowledge, systems thinking, and improvement of mental models. Table 10-4, p. 296 – Guidelines for Increasing Flexibility and Innovation Chapter 11: Leadership in Teams and Decision Groups (305-340)
Nature of Teams/Functional Teams/Cross-Functional Teams/Self-Managed Work
Teams/Self-Defining Teams/Virtual Teams

Organizations are relying increasingly on teams to improve quality, efficiency, and adaptive change. Cross-functional teams are used to improve coordination among the different parties involved in carrying out a joint project. Self-managed teams are delegated most of the responsibility and authority traditionally vested in first-line supervisors. Self-defining teams represent an extreme form of empowerment, because the team can determine its mission, regulate its internal processes, and negotiate relationships with other parts of the organization and outsiders. The potential advantages of teams include greater employee satisfaction and commitment, better quality of products and services, and greater efficiency and productivity. However, the benefits do not occur automatically, and successful implementation depends on a variety of facilitating conditions, including the quality of leadership. Some essential leadership processes in teams include building consensus around shared objectives, identifying effective performance strategies, organizing team activities, enhancing member skills and role clarity, building mutual trust and cooperation, procuring needed resources, and facilitating external coordination. In self-managed and self-defining teams, the leadership roles are carried out informally and shared among the members. Table 11-1, p. 307 – Common Characteristics of Different Types of Groups or Teams Table 11-2, p. 308 – Mediating Variables for Effect of Leader Behavior on Team Performance Table 11-3, p. 312 – Leadership Behaviors in Cross-Functional Teams Table 11-4, p. 314 – Functions Performed by Self-Managed Teams Table 11-5, p. 317 – Facilitating Conditions for Self-Managed Teams
Procedures for Facilitating Team Learning
The success of a team also depends in part on its capacity to learn from experience. Two types of group process that can facilitate team learning are after-activity reviews and dialogue sessions. An after-activity review is a meeting held to determine what worked well and what did not. A dialogue session is a problem-solving meeting in which team members examine their implicit assumptions, emphasize inquiry rather than advocacy, and try to agree on
appropriate mental models.
Table 11-6, p. 322 – Guidelines for Conducting an After-Activity Review
Guidelines for Team Building
Team-building activities are used to increase cohesiveness (samhørigheden), group
identification, and cooperation. Some examples include emphasizing common interests and values, using ceremonies and rituals, using symbols to develop group identification, facilitating, social interaction among members, informing members about group activities and achievements, conducting process analysis sessions, conducting alignment (trimning/opretning) sessions, fostering appreciation and tolerance for diversity, and incentives for mutual cooperation.
Table 11-7, p. 323 – Guidelines for Team Building
Decision Making in Groups
A group decision is potentially superior to a decision made by a single individual such as the
leader, but many things can prevent a group from realizing its potential. A major determinant of group effectiveness is the quality of leadership. Leadership functions in the context of group meetings can be divided into task-oriented functions and group maintenance functions. Both leadership functions appear essential for the success of a decision group, and they require skill and a sense of proper timing to be effective. Table 11-8, p. 329 – Major Types of Leadership Behavior in decision Groups Table 11-9, p. 330 – Comparison of Two Viewpoints on Leadership in Decision Groups Guidelines for Leading Meetings
The leadership role is difficult, because the decision process will be adversely affected if the leader is either too passive or too domineering. To improve group problem solving and avoid common process problems, a leader should present the problem solving and avoid common process problems, a leader should present the problem in an unbiased manner, encourage the group to consider alternative conceptions of the problem, separate idea generation from idea evaluation, and use systematic procedures for solution evaluation. Research on leadership in teams has increased in recent years, but it continues to lag behind the pace of change in the way teams are used in organizations. A case in point is the increasing use of virtual teams in organizations. The extent to which effective leadership is different in virtual teams has yet to be determined, and rapid advances in technology make it difficult to predict whether the results from current research will still be relevant in the future. Table 11-10, p. 332 – Guidelines for Leading Decision Group Meetings Chapter 12: Strategic leadership by Executives (p. 341-369)
Constraints on Executive Discretion
A major controversy in the leadership literature is whether chief executives have much impact
on the effectiveness of an organization. Critics argue that a CEO has little influence on organization performance due to constraints such as powerful stakeholders, internal coalitions, a strong culture, scarce (knappe) resources, strong competitors, and unfavorable economic conditions. Succession studies on effects of changing the leadership of organizations have been cited as evidence that leaders have little impact on organizational performance. However, when artifacts are eliminated, the succession studies actually demonstrate a moderately strong influence of leaders on organizational performance.
Attributions About Chief Executives/Research on Effects of Leadership Succession
The influence of chief executives is exaggerated as a result of biased attributions that discount the importance of other explanations such as industry performance and economic conditions. Leaders try to manage impressions and influence followers to make more favorable attributions about their competence. The attribution research demonstrates that leaders have less influence over organizational events than is often assumed, but the research does not support the conclusion that leaders are unimportant. Despite all the constraints, individual executives and executive teams can still have a substantial influence on the effectiveness of an organization.
Evolutionary Change and Strategic Leadership
A CEO has the most potential impact on the performance of the organization when there is a
crisis and the strategy of the organization is no longer aligned with its environment. A major
change is more likely to be successful if initiated early before a crisis becomes very serious and the organization no longer has any slack resources to finance it. However, it is more difficult to initiate major change when there is no obvious crisis and resistance is strong.
Political Power and Strategic Leadership
The amount of change is also affected by power struggles among different subunits or
coalitions. According to strategic contingencies theory, the evolutionary process of power acquisition and loss will ensure that strategic decisions are made by the most qualified people. However, this evolutionary process may not occur if the dominant faction’s power is institutionalized through political processes.
Executive Tenure and Strategic Leadership
Time in office is related to the amount of strategic change initiated by a chief executive. A CEO
who has been in office for a long period of time is unlikely to make major changes in strategy. Major change is more likely to be initiated by an external successor.
Executive Teams
An executive team is more important in a complex, rapidly changing environment that places
many external demands on the CEO. Teams are also more important in an organization with diverse bur highly interdependent business units, because a single leader is unlikely to have the broad expertise necessary to direct and integrate the activities of these units. The executive characteristics necessary for team effectiveness depend on the organizational context in which the team must operate, on the nature of the environment, and on the leadership behavior of the CEO. Diversity of background and perspective improves the quality of the strategic decisions made by a team facing a turbulent, uncertain environment, but
diversity also makes it more difficult to reach consensus.
Competing Values in Strategic Leadership
The CEO faces many choices that involve trade-offs among competing values such as concern
for task objectives versus concern for people, stability and efficiency versus adaptation, and internal versus external focus. How well these competing values are balanced in relation to the environment of the organization is a good indicator of CEO effectiveness.
Monitoring the Environment/Formulating Strategy
External monitoring provides information needed for strategic planning and crisis
management. To detect threats and discover opportunities in a timely way, top management
must actively monitor relevant sectors of the environment, sources of dependency for the organization, and current performance. A strategy is more likely to be effective if it builds on core competences, is relevant to long-term objectives, and is feasible in terms of current capabilities. Table 12-1, p. 358 – Questions for External Monitoring Table 12-2, p. 359 – Guidelines for External Monitoring Table 12-3, p. 362 – Guidelines for Formulating Strategy Chapter 13: Developing Leadership Skills (p. 370-400)
Leadership Training Programs/Designing Effective Training/Special Techniques for

Leadership Training
Training of leadership skills is conducted by universities, consulting companies, and
organization training centers. Despite the massive volume of formal leadership training that occurs, there has been relatively little research on its effectiveness. Training methods such as behavior role modeling, cases, and simulations appear very promising, but we need to learn more about how to use these techniques for enhancing leadership skills.
Table 13-1, p. 372 – Conditions for Successful Training
Learning from Experience
The importance of learning from experience on the job is now widely acknowledged, and
researchers have begun to map the relationships between specific experiences and specific leadership competencies. In general, more development occurs for managers who have challenging experiences that require adaptation to new situations and provide opportunity to learn to deal with a variety of different types of problems and hardships. More learning also occurs when people get accurate feedback about their behavior and its consequences and use this feedback to analyze their experiences and learn from them. Developmental Activities
Developmental techniques that have the potential to increase learning from experience include multi-source feedback workshops, developmental assessment centers, special assignments, job rotation, action learning, mentoring, personal growth programs, executive coaching, and outdoor challenge programs. Although most of these developmental techniques are widely used, the amount of research to evaluate their effectiveness is still very limited. We have only begun to learn what types of leadership competencies are enhanced by each technique, the optimal conditions for using it, and the type of people most likely to benefit from it. Table 13-2, p. 381 – Activities for Facilitating Leadership Development Figure 13-1, p. 382 – Sources of Information for 360-Degree Feedback
Self-Help Activities/Facilitating Conditions for leadership Development/A Systems
Perspective on Leadership Development
The extent to which leadership competencies are acquired and used depends on the type of
developmental activities that occur (e.g., training, experiential learning, self-learning) facilitating conditions (e.g., boss support, learning environment), and qualities of the individual managers (e.g., flexible, pragmatic, learning oriented). Training and development are more effective when they are coordinated with each other, supported by a strong learning culture, and integrated with other human resource activities such as career counseling, staffing decisions, performance appraisal, and succession planning. It is essential to integrate these different elements to create and sustain favorable conditions for leadership development. It is also imperative for leadership development to be consistent with an organization’s strategic objectives. A systems approach to leadership development will become more common as more organizations realize that this activity is as strategically important for long-term organizational effectiveness as product development, marketing, and customer service. Table 13-3, p. 393 – Guidelines for Self-Development of Leadership Skills Table 13-4, p. 394 – Ways to Support Leadership Training of Subordinates Figure 13-2, p. 396 – Three Ways to Acquire Leadership Competencies Chapter 14: Ethical Leadership and Diversity (p. 401-422)
Ethical Leadership

The amount of discussion and research on ethical leadership has increased in the past decade. Conceptions of ethical leadership include nurturing followers, empowering them, and promoting social justice. Ethical leadership includes efforts to encourage ethical behavior and efforts to stop unethical practices in the organization. Ethical leaders seek to build mutual trust and respect among diverse followers and find integrative solutions to conflicts among stakeholders with competing interests. Such leaders do not foster distrust or play favorites to gain more power or achieve personal objectives. Determinants of ethical behavior by a leader include situational influences and aspects of leader personality such as level of cognitive moral development. The criteria for evaluating ethical leadership include leader values, intentions, and the extent to which leader behavior is morally justifiable. Evaluation of morality for individual leaders is complicated by multiple stakeholders, the diverse consequences of a leader’s actions, and disagreements about the extent to which ends justify means. Table 14-1, p. 406 – Suggested Criteria for Evaluating Ethical Leadership Table 14-2, p. 408 – Two Aspects of Ethical Leadership Behavior Gender (køn) and Leadership
Sex-based discrimination in the selection and promotion of leaders continues to be a serious problem in large organizations. Multiple reasons for such discrimination have been proposed, but more research is needed to understand the problem better and find ways to deal with it. Many studies have examined gender-based differences in leadership behavior and effectiveness, but the findings are weak and inconsistent. Future studies should control for effects of likely contaminating variables, report the magnitude of any significant differences that are found, and measure processes that provide insight into the reasons for the differences.
Leadership in Different Cultures
With the rapid pace of globalization and economic development, cross-cultural leadership has
become an important topic for research. The amount of cross-cultural research has been increasing steadily, but it is still too early to draw any firm conclusions about the universal and unique aspects of leadership across cultures. The methodological difficulties in conducting this type of research are substantial. In many of the studies, equivalence of meaning is not assured, the sampling procedures are inadequate (utilstrækkelig) controls for contaminating (sammenblanding) factors are absent, explanatory variables are not included, and interpretation of results is questionable. Faster progress may require greater use of large-scale
research projects such as GLOBE (The GLOBE Project, p. 417-418).
Table 14-3, p. 416 – Examples of Cultural Dimensions
Managing Diversity
An important responsibility for leaders in this new century is the management of diversity.
Leaders have an essential role in helping to bring about equal opportunity and elimination of unfair discrimination in selection and promotion decisions. Leaders can do many things to encourage tolerance and appreciation of diversity in organizations. However, it will be a challenge for leaders to foster diversity while also attempting to build a strong organizational culture with shared values and collective identification. Table 14-4, p. 419 – Guidelines for Managing Diversity Chapter 15: Overview and Integration (p. 423-441)
Dette kapitel 15 følger traditionen i den amerikanske litteratur - Efter i detaljer, kapitel efter
kapitel, at have gennemgået stoffet, og opsummert dette, stillet kontrolspørgsmål og
gennemgået en case, så opsummeres det hele lige igen, igen, igen, igen!!!!!!!!! Nedenstående er derfor udelukkende en opsummering af de overskrifter, tabeller og fugurer, der gennemgås samt referat de steder hvor der konkluderes på noget der ikke tidligere har været konkluderet på.
Major Findings in Leadership Research

Toward an Integrating Conceptual Framework
Table 15-1, p. 429 – Approximate Correspondence Among Concepts in Different Approaches Figure 15-1, p. 430 – An Integrating Conceptual Framework Biases (ensidighed/skævhed i opfattelse) In the Conceptualization of Leadership
How leadership is conceptualized has important implications for theory and research. Much of the leadership research has been influenced by the implicit assumption that effective leadership can be explained in terms of dyadic influence by a heroic leader. This assumption limits the scope of research and theory and discourages exploration of shared leadership, collective processes, and reciprocal influence. A more balanced perspective is desirable in the future. Most leadership theories are also limited by a lack of adequate (tilstrækkelig) attention to explanatory processes. The theories often propose relationships or causal effects without explaining why they occur. Future theories must do more to explain as well as predict the effects of leaders on individuals, groups, and organizations.
Controversies About Research Methods
Past research on leadership has relied too much on weak research methods. It is important to select methods that are appropriate for the type of knowledge sought, rather than merely (blot) using the most convenient methods. The purpose of the research should dictate the methodology and choices of samples, not the other way around. Given the limitations of each type of methodology, it is desirable to use multiple methods whenever feasible for research on leadership. It is also important to consider the appropriate level of analysis for the theoretical constructs and measures. Multilevel analysis can provide new insight about leadership processes and help to determine whether parallel processes occur at different levels.
Concluding Thoughts
This book takes a very broad perspective and it examines many different aspects of leadership. The multitude of different theories and the lack of consistent findings make it difficult to identify essential leadership functions. This section presents what I (Gary Yukl) think are the 10 most important leadership functions for enhancing collective work in teams and organizations. Create Alignment (orden/opstilling) on Objectives and Strategies Encourage and Facilitate Collective Learning



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